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R. Scorza, J.M. Cordts, D.J. Gray, D. Gonsalves, R.L. Emershad and D.W. Ramming

Transgenic grape plants were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from leaves of in vitro-grown plants of `Thompson Seedless' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plants. Somatic embryos were either exposed directly to engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens or they were bombarded twice with 1-μm gold particles and then exposed to A. tumefaciens. Somatic embryos were transformed with either the lytic peptide Shiva-1 gene or the tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) coat protein (CP) gene. After cocultivation, secondary embryos proliferated on Emershad/Ramming proliferation (ERP) medium for 6 weeks before selection on ERP medium containing 40 μg·mL-1 kanamycin (kan). Transgenic embryos were identified after 3 to 5 months under selection and allowed to germinate and develop into rooted plants on woody plant medium containing 1 μm 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.5% sucrose, 0.3% activated charcoal, and 0.75% agar. Integration of the foreign genes into these grapevines was verified by growth in the presence of kanamycin (kan), positive β-glucuronidase (GUS) and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) assays, and Southern analysis.

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Jiang Lu and Lloyd Schell

Vitis rotundifolia (Muscadine grapes), a native species characterized with multiple resistance to grape diseases and insects, are cultivated throughout the southeastern U.S. for fresh fruit and processing. However, the species falls short of consumer's expectation as fresh fruit due to its seediness and thick skin. However, Vitis vinifera, a predominant Vitis species grown worldwide possesses good fruit characteristics such as seedlessness and edible skin but is susceptible to many diseases. Attempts to produce rotundifolia-vinifera hybrids to combine good fruit quality and disease resistance of both into F1 hybrids have been made by grape breeders for many years. Limited success was only reported when the V. vinifera was used as seed parents. Pollinating seedless vinifera pollen onV. rotundifolia stigma was made in 1993 and 1994. More than 20,000 flowers from 34 cross combinations were pollinated. These crosses were made to see if there is any chance to produce hybrids when muscadine grapes were used as female parent and specifically to introgress the seedlessness from European grapes into muscadine grapes. A few hundred seeds were collected from these crosses and germinated in a greenhouse. Two seedlings were clearly distinguished from the others with morphology intermediate between muscadine and the vinifera grapes, while the rest looked straight muscadine grapes derived from possible contaminated pollination. This conclusion was further confirmed by isozyme and DNA markers. One of the seedlings produced from the cross of `Jumbo' × `Thompson Seedless' grew vigorously and has been setting fruit since 1996. Fruit are mixture of stenospermocarpic and pathonocarpic seedlessness. Fruit setting and pollen viability test indicated that this hybrid is at least partly self-fertile. Many other characteristics of the hybrid, such as leaves, stems, tendrils, time of budbreak, bloom date, and ripen date are intermediate between muscadine and bunch grapes. The hybrid is resistant to Pierce's disease, anthracnose disease, and downy mildew, which are the limited factor to growing V. vinifera in the hot and humid southeastern U.S. This is the first report of a seedless hybrid from V. rotundifolia × V. vinifera.

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Shijian Zhuang, Letizia Tozzini, Alan Green, Dana Acimovic, G. Stanley Howell, Simone D. Castellarin and Paolo Sabbatini

targeted quality traits, especially with respect to the concentrations of sugars, anthocyanins, and phenolics at harvest. Materials and Methods Plant material. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet franc vines (clone FPS 01), grafted on rootstock 3309 C and

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang and Haiying Xu

, P.K. Davies, C. Robinson, S.P. 1996 Analysis of the expression of anthocyanin pathway genes in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz grape berries and the implications for pathway regulation Plant Physiol. 111 1059 1066 Buer, C.S. 2010 Flavonoids

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Sheila M. Colby, Adrian M. Juncosa, James A. Stamp and Carole P. Meredith

The developmental anatomy of direct shoot organogenesis from in vitro leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. French Colombard was studied by light microscopy. Regenerating petiole stubs of leaf explants were fixed at intervals and were sectioned longitudinally to determine the developmental sequence of direct shoot organogenesis. After 6 days, three distinct regions of meristematic activity were apparent within expanding petiole stub: the wound-response, organogenic, and vascularization regions. In the organogenic region, divisions of vacuolate outer cortical cells formed nodular bumps that sometimes became adventitious leaves. Promeristems, which had the potential to become adventitious shoot meristems, were also initiated asynchronously in the organogenic region. Promeristem initiation occurred by two or several synchronous cell divisions occurring in the epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. Adventitious shoots and leaves developed new vascular bundles that connected to the pre-existing vascular bundles of the explant.

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Andrew G. Reynolds, Douglas A. Wardle and Marjorie Dever

Vitis vinifera L. cultivars Müller-Thurgau, Muscat Ottonel, Gewürztraminer, and Kerner were studied for 1 year to document changes in fruit terpene levels from berry stage to free-run and press-juice stages. Substantial amounts of free volatile terpenes (FVTs) and potentially volatile terpenes (PVTs) were lost between berry and juice stages. PVTs were higher in press juices of `Gewürztraminer' and `Muscat Ottonel' than in free-run juices. In another experiment, juices from `Miiller-Thurgau', `Muscat Ottonel', `Kerner', `Optima', `Pearl of Csaba', and `Siegerrebe', harvested 10 to 20 days after a designated initial harvest date, contained higher FVTs and PVTs than initially. A third experiment with `Kerner', `Müller-Thurgau', `Optima', and `Siegerrebe' found highest FVTs and PVTs in juices from grapes subjected to skin contact compared with grapes crushed and immediately pressed. Sensory evaluation showed aroma differences between wines from free-run and press juices of `Miiller-Thurgau' and `Muscat Ottonel', aroma and flavor differences due to harvest date for all cultivars except `Pearl of Csaba', and aroma and flavor differences due to skin contact for `Siegerrebe'.

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M. Dolores Loureiro, M. Carmen Martínez, Jean-Michel Boursiquot and Patrice This

`Albariño' (Vitis vinifera L.) is an important grape cultivar in Spain, morphologically diverse but subject to much misnaming. The objectives of the present work were to correct some of the more common misnamings concerning `Albariño' and to evaluate the genetic variability within this cultivar by analyzing DNA polymorphisms using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and microsatellite techniques. Several accessions of `Albariño' (16 accessions from Misión Biológica de Galicia, one accession from El Encin, one accession from Rancho de la Merced), related cultivars (`Alvarinho', `Caíño blanco', `Cainho branco', `Loureiro'), and cultivars presumably identical to misnomers (`Savagnin blanc' and `Gewürztraminer') were analyzed using 20 RAPD markers and six microsatellite loci. Both techniques revealed polymorphism among `Albariño', `Caíño blanco', `Albariño' from Rancho de la Merced and `Loureiro'. No polymorphism was detected among the 16 `Albariño' accessions from Galicia, the `Albariño' accession from El Encin and `Alvarinho', nor among the `Albariño' accession from Rancho de la Merced, `Savagnin blanc' and `Gewürztraminer', nor between `Caíño blanco' and `Cainho branco'. These results enabled us to clarify the main misnomers concerning these cultivars. The absence of polymorphism among the true `Albariño' accessions did not allow the detection of any clonal variation. The suitability of both techniques for defining the cultivar level for grapevine is discussed.

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David W. Ramming, Richard L. Emershad and Ronald Tarailo

Hybridizations between seedless Vitis vinifera L. genotypes and V. rotundifolia (Michx.) were made specifically to introgress the seedless trait into the disease-resistant background of V. rotundifolia. The seedless, gynoecious P79-101 was hybridized with three V. rotundifolia parents, producing a total of 102 ovules. From these ovules, 44 embryos developed, producing 20 plants. Isozyme analyses and morphological traits confirmed that 19 of the plants were hybrids. Sixteen were planted in an experimental vineyard at California State Univ. Fresno. One seedling, C41-5, produced seedless fruit that appeared to be stenospermocarpic based on fruit and aborted seed size. Fruit weight was slightly less than that of `Thompson Seedless' (stenospermocarpic) and at least twice that of parthenocarpic fruit of `Black Corinth' and C41-7, a seeded hybrid with many parthenocarpic fruit. Aborted seeds of C41-5 were larger than, but not significantly different from, those of `Thompson Seedless', while parthenocarpic fruit from `Black Corinth' and C41-7 had aborted seeds that were smaller than those of C41-5. Seed weight of C41-7 averaged almost 10 times that of aborted C41-5 seeds. This is the first report of a stenospermocarpic, seedless hybrid of V. vinifera × V. rotundifolia.

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Lydia F. Wessner and Geoffrey Dervishian

photosynthesis and vine performance in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Barbera Aust. J. Grape Wine. Res. 17 351 357 California Department of Food and Agriculture 2012 Grape crush report. Final 2011. Sacramento. 1 Apr. 2012 < http

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Stefano Poni, Alberto Palliotti and Fabio Bernizzoni

This paper describes and evaluates the reliability of a model for prediction of daily carbon balance and dry matter (DM) accumulation in vertically shoot positioned grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) canopies based on the user-friendly STELLA simulation software. Validation of the model was produced for potted `Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines at both low canopy density [LD (≈10 shoots/m of row)] and high canopy density [HD (≈20 shoots/m of row)] by comparing, on a seasonal basis, the modelled daily CO2 balance with the diurnal net carbon exchange rate (NCER) measured using a whole-canopy enclosure method. Estimated daily total photosynthesis (Pn) was linearly correlated with measured NCER for LD (r 2 = 0.87) and HD (r 2 = 0.86), thereby indicating that despite its simplicity the model led to a fairly good degree of precision, although it tended to slightly underestimate (5% to 8% less) the measured rates and scattering increased at high values of CO2 fixations. Daily total respiration (R) for LD treatment was 29.0% of total daily Pn, with clusters, leaves and stems accounting for 11.8%, 46.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. Daily total R was 24.2% of total daily Pn in HD treatment and single organs contributed 22.3% (clusters), 41.6% (leaves), and 36.1% (stems). The model estimated that 1604 and 1893 g DM per vine accumulated at harvest for LD and HD treatment, respectively, whereas destructive sampling of leaves, stems and clusters yielded 1475 ± 64 g per vine for LD treatment and 1730 ± 96 g per vine for HD treatment, respectively, corresponding to the 91% and 92% of the DM estimated with STELLA, which in its present version does not take into account root respiration.