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‘Akizuki’ ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), a Japanese pear, plays an important role in pear production in China because of its good quality characteristics such as large fruit, pretty shape, delicate pulp. and high soluble solid content. However, with the

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imperative for better management ( Atangana et al., 2010 ; Boccacci et al., 2013 ). Pyrus betulaefolia , as the most popular pear rootstock in China and other east Asian countries for its good adaptability to versatile environments ( Okubo and Sakuratani

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Abstract

The genus Pyrus has been classified into at least 22 primary species. These can be grouped by geographical distribution and/or taxonomic relationships. The European group includes P. communis L., P. nivalis Jacq., and P. cordata, (Desv.) Schneid. The North African group contains P. longipes Coss. and Dur., P. gharbiana Trab., and P. mamorensis Trab. The west Asian group consists of P. syriaca Boiss., P. elaeagrifolia Pall., and P. amygdaliformis Vill., P. salicifolia Pall., P. glabra Boiss., P. regellii Rehd., (syn. P. bucharica and P. heterophylla Reg. & Schmalh). The medium to large fruited east Asian species are P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nak., P. kansuensis, P. ussuriensis Max., P. hondoensis Kik. and Nak., while the Asian “pea” pear species are P. calleryana Dcne., P. betulaefolia Bung., P.fauriei Schneid., P. dimorphophylla Makino, and P. koehnei Schneid. (3, 27). A number of nonprimary species also appear in the literature, which may be either botanical varieties, subspecies, or interspecific hybrids. Among the east Asian group, P. bretschneideri Rehd. is a probable hybrid of P. betulaefolia and the cultivated forms of P. pyrifolia; P. phaeocarpa Rehd. may be a P. betulaefolia × P. ussurensis hybrid, whereas P. serrulata Rehd. is a probable interspecific hybrid involving P. pyrifolia and P. calleryana.

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Abstract

Respiration of flower-buds of Pyrus communis L., a late blooming species, and P. calleryana, an early blooming species, was investigated throughout the winter. Respiration of P. calleryana Decne at 5°C was twice as high as that of P. communis, whereas the respiration rates were similar at 25°. A large portion (60–70%) of the respiration at 5° was cyanide resistant in P. calleryana and much less in P. communis. The combination of inhibitors, cyanide (KCN) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), still only partially inhibited respiration. The residual respiration was much higher for P. calleryana than for P. communis. The nature of the residual respiration is not known.

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The sand pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most important fruit tree crops in China and is extensively cultivated in central and southwest China. The species occurs naturally in southern and western China, recognized as the center of

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Pear ( Pyrus L.) is an important commercial fruit crop widely cultivated around the world. Since the 1980s, with the introduction and breeding of improved cultivars, the planting area of early-maturing chinese sand pear cultivars has gradually

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The United States produced 407,000 t of ‘Bartlett’ pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in 2012 [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2013] . California produces ≈32% of all pears in the nation and exports between 20% and 30% of the fresh crop each year

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Abstract

More than 4500 accessions of eight genera including Pyrus at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Ore., require testing for cold hardiness. Since pear xylem deep supercools (7), differential thermal analysis (DTA) would be a suitable test if large numbers of samples could be examined simultaneously. The object of this study was to produce a method of multichannel DTA for defining cold hardiness of pear accessions. Visual browning was also examined to confirm cold hardiness values.

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Pear ( Pyrus spp.) is cultivated worldwide and it is one of the economically important fruit crops in Taiwan with ≈8300 ha of cultural areas, which account for cash value of 3.6 billion NT dollars in 2008, just next to citrus, pineapple, and

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Pyrus communis L. germplasm came to North America with early settlers. Pyrus cultivars have markedly declined since the turn of the century when more than 2700 unique Pyrus cultivars and 10,000 cultivar synonyms were noted. In 1956, 844 Pyrus cultivars and selections were widely available. Fireblight, Erwinia amylovora (Burril) Winslow et al. 1923, and lack of cold hardiness were main causes of cultivated germplasm loss. During June through December 1989, I resurveyed 37 State Agricultural Experiment Stations which had pear collections in 1956, to determine the present extent of their collections. Only four had more than 100 cultivars; 12 had 10 to 100 cultivars; 21 had less than 10. Experiment stations have decreased their collections because of funding cuts and program redirection. The National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, established in 1981, has a collection of 811 unique cultivars and representatives of 26 Pyrus species. About 194 cultivars published in 1908 are in the NCGR collection. At least 424 of those listed in 1956 still exist. Oriental species and other foreign selections not previously available are actively being acquired. About 80% of the clones in the NCGR collection are virus negative; about 10 % reside in backup in vitro storage. Fireblight damage has not been observed thus far. With continued federal support, Pyrus germplasm availability should remain more stable than the decline seen in the last 90 years.

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