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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter and Wayne W. Hanna

.M. 1965 Notes on the cultivated Malvaceae 1 Hibiscus. Baileya. 13 56 96 Bennett, M.D. Leitch, I.J. 2005 Plant DNA C-values database, release 4.0 15 July 2009 < http

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Bing Shi and Wallace Pill

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), native to east Africa, is an annual herbaceous member of Malvaceae cultivated primarily for its bast fibers. One of many potential uses of kenaf is that of a growth medium component. Kenaf stems (xylem plus phloem) were ground and sieved to 2 to 5 mm diameter particles. The particles were combined at various volumetric percentages with other components (perlite, vermiculite, calcined clay) in 70% Sphagnum pest moss which received standard preplant fertilization. To avoid growth suppression, the kenaf must be enriched with nitrogen (soaked in NH4NO3 solution for 5 days). Impatiens and tomato bedding plant shoot growth was proportional to both the N concentration of the soak solution and the percentage of N-soaked kenaf in the medium. The N soak solution should be £ 2000 mg N/liter with 30% kenaf or £ 4000 mg N/liter with 10% kenaf. Physical properties (bulk density, total porosity, air porosity and container capacity) of kenaf media were similar to those of a commercial peat-lite. The optimal medium for bedding plant production was 70% pest + 15% calcined clay + 15% kenaf soaked in 2000 mg N/liter. The N-soaked kenaf served successfully both as a medium bulking component and as a slow-release N supply.

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Julia L. Lamb, Jesse R. Quarrels and Steven E. Newman

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a member of the Malvaceae family cultivated primarily for its bast fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate kenaf fiber core as a substitute for vermiculite in a sphagnum peat moss-based medium. Rooted cuttings of Dendranthema x grandiflora were planted into 1 liter pots containing six sphagnum peat moss-based media modified with fine or coarse, fresh or aged kenaf core and/or vermiculite. The media were (by volume): 5 peat: 5 vermiculite: 0 kenaf, 5 peat: 4 vermiculite-1 kenaf; 5 peat: 3 vermiculite: 2 kenaf; 5 peat: 2 vermiculite: 3 kenaf; 5 peat-1 vermiculite: 4 kenaf; and 5 peat: 0 vermiculite: 5 kenaf, Dolomite was added at five rates 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 kg/m3. Gypsum was added to each medium combination to provide equal calcium levels for all treatments. The medium with no kenaf grew the tallest plants. Kenaf that was aged and finely ground produced plants similar in height to controls. Fresh kenaf was detrimental to plant growth. Dolomite ameliorated the fresh kenaf effect slightly.

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Dianne Oakley, Julie Laufmann, James Klett and Harrison Hughes

Propagation of Winecups [Callirhoe involucrata (Torrey & A. Gray)] for use as a landscape ornamental has been impeded by a lack of understanding of the seed dormancy and a practical method for overcoming it. As with many members of the Malvaceae family, C. involucrata produces hard seed. In the populations tested, it accounted for 90% of an average sample. Impermeability, however, is not the only limiting factor to germination. Three disparate populations of seed, representing two different collection years have been investigated using moist pre-chilling, boiling water, leaching, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and mechanical and chemical scarification methods. Scarifying in concentrated sulfuric acid stimulates germination of some seed fractions and causes embryonic damage in others, suggesting variation in seed coat thickness. Similar results were obtained using a pressurized air-scarifier; the hard seed coat of some seed fractions were precisely scarified while others were physically damaged using the same psi/time treatment. Placing seed in boiling water increases germination from 4%, 7%, and 18 % to 23%, 25%, and 77% in the three populations, respectively. Leaching for 24/48 h in cold (18 °C) aerated water or for 24 h in warm (40 °C) aerated water showed only a minor increase over the control. Pre-chilling at 5 °C for 30, 60, and 90 days showed no improvement over the control. Gibberellic acid-soaked blotters improved germination at 400 ppm to 20%, 10%, and 41%; at 500 ppm germination was reduced. Soaking seed for 24 h in a 3% concentration of hydrogen peroxide did not effect germination; at a 30% concentration germination was reduced. The considerable variation in seed dormancy expression may be a function of differences in environmental factors during development or seed age.

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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

interspecific hybrids between H. roseus and H. coccineus, H. moscheutos and H. mutabilis (Studies on interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in the Malvaceae IV) Tech. Bul. Fac. Agr. Kagawa Univ. 13 1 7 Kuwada, H. 1962 The F 1 hybrids obtained from

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Donald N. Maynard

final vegetable chapter features the Hibiscus L. (roselle) and Abelmoschus Medic. (okra) genera of the Malvaceae family. A multitude of underutilized root and tuber crops are included in one chapter. These crops are not grown widely but have

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Chalita Sriladda, Heidi A. Kratsch, Steven R. Larson and Roger K. Kjelgren

Growers Association, 2012 ; Kratsch, 2011 ; Mee et al., 2003 ; Meyer et al., 2009 ). The genus Sphaeralcea (Malvaceae), commonly known as globemallow, is an annual–perennial herb or shrub wildflower characterized by brilliant, largely orange, flowers

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank and Orville C. Baldos

(PD), morphological dormancy, morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), physical dormancy (PY), and combinational dormancy (PY + PD) ( Baskin and Baskin, 2004 ). Uhaloa [ Waltheria indica L. (Malvaceae)] is a pantropical shrub species which occurs in

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Jason D. Lattier, Hsuan Chen and Ryan N. Contreras

Hibiscus is a genus in the Malvaceae comprising ≈250 species of mostly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs divided into 10 sections ( Fryxell, 1988 ; Van Laere et al., 2007 ). However, few species extend their natural range into

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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

olive floral and fruit biology Sci. Hort. 179 198 203 Contreras, R.N. Ruter, J.M. 2009 An oryzalin induced polyploid from a hybrid of Hibiscus acetosella x H. radiatus (Malvaceae) exhibits reduced fertility and altered morphology HortScience 44 1177