A.N. Pollard, P. Coggins, P.R. Knight and C.E. Coker
There are >52,000 cultivars of daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.), some of which the ancient Chinese used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Daylilies have tremendous potential in foodservice due to the range of color, fragrance, flavor, and textural varieties. The objective was to quantify by descriptive analysis the attribute descriptors for two edible daylily cultivars; that is, `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink,' and to provide data indicating the optimum month for consumption of these two cultivars of daylilies. Blooms were harvested during early morning hours over 5 months (May through September). Six panelists were trained to use Quantitative Descriptive Analysis for 6 months on the sensory attributes of `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' cultivars. Training consisted of determining attribute categories as well as intensity ratings for references. Attribute categories included appearance, odor/scent, handfelt texture, oral texture, basic taste(s), flavor, mouthfeel factors, and chew rate. Results showed attribute categories with descriptors for `Siloam Powder Pink' as odor/scent, flavor, mouthfeel factors, and oral texture as having a significant difference (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months. `Rosie Meyer' demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months in attribute categories for appearance, odor/scent, flavor, oral texture, and mouthfeel factors. The optimum month for consumption of `Rosie Meyer] was September (P < 0.05); for `Siloam Powder Pink,' it was July (P < 0.05). These results provide a descriptive language for daylily cultivars `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink.' The optimum month for consumption to obtain the fullest range of desirable attributes will provide the food and horticultural industries with added information by which to market these cultivars.
Yan Chen, Regina P. Bracy, Allen D. Owings and Joey P. Quebedeaux
Use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) has been recommended to the landscape service industry as a best management practice for establishing landscape plants. However, application practices vary considerably among professionals and recommendations are lacking for the appropriate type (tablet vs. granular), application rate, and timing of CRF to establish herbaceous perennials. In this study, cigar plant (Cuphea ignea), daylily (Hemerocallis ‘Stella de Oro’), gaura (Gaura lindheimeri ‘Siskiyou Pink’), lantana (Lantana camara ‘New Gold’), mexican heather (Cuphea hyssopifolia), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), and rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’) were fertilized with granular CRF (GF) 15N–3.9P–10K (8 to 9 month) at 0, 1, 2, or 4 lb/1000 ft2 nitrogen (N) at transplant (no fertilization, GF1, GF2, and GF4, respectively), a split application of GF with 1 lb/1000 ft2 N applied at transplant and 1 lb/1000 ft2 N applied 5-months later (GF2-split), or tablet CRF 16N–3.5P–10K (8 to 9 months) at two tablets per plant (7.5 g) at transplant (TF2). Plant size and visual quality (VQ) at 5 months after transplant (MAT) were improved by fertilization for all perennials except ‘Stella de Oro’ daylily. Compared to GF2, GF4 improved the growth of perennials of larger size and greater biomass production (i.e., cigar plant), but did not further improve their VQ. All perennials grown with TF2 had similar size and quality as those grown with GF2 at 5 MAT. At 15 MAT, no difference was found among fertilizer treatments for surviving perennials except cigar plant. Split application (GF2-split) did not improve overwinter survival or second-year plant growth and quality for most species when compared with GF2. On the basis of these results, we recommend applying two tablets (7.5 g) of 16N–3.5P–10K per plant at transplant to establish the perennials tested in this study.
Johnny Carter and Seema Dhir
A plant regeneration protocol has been successfully developed to mass propagate daylilies. Experiments were conducted to determine source (BA, KN, and ZT) and concentration (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg/L) of cytokinins and sugars (glucose, surcose, and maltose) to be used in the medium. Studies were also conducted to determine the influence of flower bud size (5, 10, 15, and 20 mm) as explant source. Based on results from these studies a protocol for propagating daylilies was developed. The procedure involved using filament explants from daylily flower buds ranging in sizes from 5 to 10 mm. The filaments when cultured on MS+BAP (3.0 mg/L)+ IAA (0.5 mg/L) medium,formed globular somatic embryos in 4 weeks. Complete plants were regenerated within a period of 6 to 7 months. Upon acclimatization, 100% of the tissue culture generated raised plants survived under greenhouse conditions.
Jeffrey Adelberg, Maria Delgado and Jeffery Tomkins
Two tetraploid and two diploid varieties of daylily were micropropagated on a shaker in MS liquid medium containing high and low sugar levels (3% and 6% sucrose), 2 BA levels (0.32 and 3.2 μm), at two densities (57 and 171 explants/L), in the presence (0.32 μm) and absence of ancymidol. Biomass and media use were partitioned for the four genotypes and 32 cultural conditions with three replications (4 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3). Genotype greatly effected f resh weight, dry weight, media, sugar and water use, but ploidy had little effect. Vessels at high density (171 explants/L) produced 1.8× more fresh weight, 1.4× more dry weight, used 1.6× more media and sugar than low density (57 explants/L). Plants from low density were 1.7× larger, 2× greater dry weight, and used 2× more sugar and media, than from high-density culture (per explant). Doubling the initial sugar level increased dry weight and sugar use 1.3×. There was a linear relation between sugar residual and percentage of dry weight (R 2 = 0.55, P < 0.0001), where a 1% increase in °Brix raised percentage of dry weight 1.8 units over the range of 9% to 22%. Ancymidol and BA had less effect on plant size, sugar and media use than genotype or plant density. Greenhouse survival was reduced by including ancymidol (90% to 30%) and increased BA concentration (85% to 35%). Lab plant density and initial sugar concentration had no apparent effect on greenhouse growth. `Barbara Mitchell' had greatest mass, used more sugar and media than the other varieties, yet had least greenhouse growth. Nutrient use with `Barbara Mitchell' was linearly correlated (R 2>80%) to lab growth for seven of 12 ions. P and Fe supply was inadequate to support optimal growth, as indicated by low residual in media (>1% of MS formulation).
Daren S. Mueller, Jean L. Williams-Woodward and James W. Buck
generous donation of plant material and financial support from the American Hemerocallis Society.
Neil O. Anderson and Richard T. Olsen
Crinum followed by Lilium , Hemerocallis , Watsonia , Papaver , Gladiolus , Dahlia , and Rosa ( Table 1 ). Two of Burbank’s outstanding ornamental and/or edible herbaceous cultivars—the shasta daisy and spineless cacti (discussed below
John M. Englert, Leslie H. Fuchigami and Tony H.H. Chen
Desiccation stress during the postharvest handling of bare-root nursery plants is often responsible for poor performance after transplanting. Alternate methods of handling desiccation sensitive deciduous trees, such as Washington hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum Med.), and herbaceous perennials species, including Iris, Hosta, and Hemerocallis, are needed for improving survival after transplanting.
A new antidesiccant compound called Moisturin has been useful in reducing water loss from Washington hawthorn trees during storage and shipping, and in improving survival and plant performance during establishment. Hawthorn seedlings or multi-stemmed trees treated with Moisturin before a period of water stress had up to 75% less dieback than control or other antidesiccant treatments.
The use of Moisturin treatment and / or protection with plastic bags of topped bare-rooted herbaceous perennials before five weeks of cold storage (2C) was effective in improving the survival of Iris ensata, Iris sibirica, and Hosta plants. Hemerocallis plants survived equally well with all treatments. The greatest effect on reduction of water loss and improvement of survival was when plants were sealed in plastic bags.
J.G. Norcini and J.H. Aldrich
Eight species of low-growing woody and herbaceous landscape plants were evaluated for tolerance to 1.1 or 2.2 kg a.i. bentazon/ha (plus a crop oil) applied over the top twice 7 days apart. Raphiolepis indica L. Lindl. `Alba' was the only species tolerant to bentazon in either of two experiments. Bentazon injury to Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey `Evergreen Giant' was minor (slight chlorosis) and would probably be tolerable under most landscape situations. Injury (primarily chlorosis/necrosis) to Carissa macrocarpa `Emerald Blanket', Juniperus horizontalis Moench `Bar Harbor', Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. `Compacta Green', Trachelospermum asiaticum (Sie-bold & Zucc.) Nakai `Aslo', Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., and Hemerocallis × `Aztec Gold' was significant and therefore unacceptable. Chemical name used: 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-(4)-3H-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).
Willard T. Witte, Scott Schlarbaum, Roger Sauve and Phillip C. Flanagan
Since 1988, efforts have been underway to establish a nursery research station in McMinnville, Warren County, Tennessee. Approximately 80 acres of farm property adjacent to the Collins scenic river has been conveyed to Tennessee State University (TSU) for this purpose. Scientists at TSU, Tennessee Technological University, University of Tennessee, and USDA's National Arboretum and Shade Tree Laboratory have cooperated in obtaining grant funds via the Capacity Building Grants Program to initiate a plant evaluation and introduction program. Replicated trials of woody genera include Acer, Castanea, Cornus, Lagerstroemia, Quercus, Syringa, Ulmus. Herbaceous genera are Echinacea, Hemerocallis, Hosta. Plantings will be made over a three year period as infrastructure at the new station develops. Additional grant proposals have been recently submitted.