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Braja B. Datta and Ray D William

Fall-planted cover crops killed in spring is practiced in strawberry cultivation in different regions of the North America. These systems have shown significant weed suppression and conservation of soil without significant yield reduction in strawberry. During the establishment season, this study was initiated to assess weed suppression with cover crops (`Wheeler' rye and `Micah' and `Steptoe' barley) along with perlite, an artificial plant medium. Strawberry (`Selva' and `Totem') plant growth and weed biomass were measured during 1995-96 season. Small-seeded summer annual weeds were suppressed in cover crop treatments compared to control treatment. `Micah' barley in growth phase suppressed more than 81% of the total weed biomass compared to control plots with no cover crop in early spring. However, in early summer, cover crop residues failed to suppress different types of weeds 60 days after killing of cereal with herbicide (2% glyphosate). Distinct differences in strawberry plant growth were evident between the cover crop treatments and non-cover crop treatments including `Micah' applied on surface. Strawberry growth was doubled during 10 July to 15 Aug. in both cultivars. `Micah' barley applied on surface produced better growth in both strawberry varieties than the growth in other treatments. `Micah' barley applied on soil surface produced 50% more strawberry shoot biomass may indicate the root competition between cover crops and strawberry.

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Gustavo Gimenez, James R. Ballington and Robert D. Milholland

Two experiments were designed to study components of resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum on runners of three strawberry cultivars: incubation period, latent period, length of the lesion and spore production, and infection frequency with three levels of inoculum density (104, 105, 106 spores/cc) were considered. Rate of disease development was also determined. There were significant differences in all the components among the resistant and susceptible cultivars. Both 'Chandler' and 'Sweet Charlie' expressed susceptible reactions. The length of the lesion, number of spores/cm of the lesion, incubation period, latent period, and rate of anthracnose development were statistically similar in 'Chandler' and 'Sweet Charlie'. The only significant difference among them was found in infection frequency. 'Chandler' had a greater number of infection sites with all three concentrations of spores included. The cultivar Pelican showed a high level of partial resistance associated with longer incubation and latent periods, lower number of spores/cm of lesion, shorter lesion, smaller number of infection sites, and lower rate of disease development.

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh and Andre Bédanger

Leaves of three strawberry cultivars (Bounty', `Honeoye', and `Kent') were collected at random from plants growing in an experimental trial at the Agriculture Canada, Research Station farm at Lavaltrie, Quebec. Steam-distillation was carried out on 300g of leaves in 3L of distilled water in a 5L flask. The essential oils were analyscd with a Varian 6000 gas chromatogmph. Thirty-seven compounds were detected of which sixteen were identified. The major components were linalool and nonanal. Many of the other constituents were aliphatic in nature. Differences in oil composition among the three cultivars were observed. Essential oil composition might therefore be used as a selection criteria for insect or disease resistance. Their effect upon mites will be assayed in future studies by testing them as sex, food, or oviposition lures.

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Travis L. Stegmeir, Chad E. Finn, Ryan M. Warner and James F. Hancock

The primary cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier, is believed to have arisen from a chance hybridization between the octoploid species F. chiloensis (L.) Miller subsp. chiloensis forma chiloensis and F

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Douglas V. Shaw and Kirk D. Larson

The genetic opportunity for selection of early fruiting strawberry cultivars was evaluated using seedling populations from the Univ. of California (UC) breeding program in three years. Narrow-sense heritabilities for early season yield and for the proportion of an individual's total yield expressed early were moderate (h2 = 0.24-0.53) and broad-sense heritabilities were slightly larger (H2 = 0.31-0.70), suggesting the presence of some nonadditive genetic variance for these traits. These two traits were genetically correlated with each other (rg = 0.78-0.98), but only early yield was consistently genetically correlated with seasonal yield (rg = 0.52-0.82). Selection was performed for each trait using an index on full-sib family means and individual phenotypic values in two of the three years, and predicted response was compared with that obtained using vegetatively propagated runner plants from selected genotypes in the subsequent fruiting season. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) selection response was obtained in one of two years for each trait, and combined analysis demonstrated highly significant (P < 0.01) response for both traits. However, realized response over all traits and years was just 27.3% of that predicted based on the estimated heritabilities and applied selection intensities. These results suggest that selection for early yield should be based at least in part on runner plant evaluations rather than exclusively on seedling performance.

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Douglas V. Shaw

Selfed progenies were generated using 10 day-neutral genotypes from the University of California (UC) strawberry breeding program as parents and their offspring were classified for late-summer flowering response. The grandparents of each selfed progeny included one of four day-neutral genotypes and one of eight short-day genotypes. Under the null hypothesis of genetic control by a single locus with the allele for day-neutrality dominant to the allele for short-day flowering response, all of these day-neutral parent genotypes must be heterozygous and their selfed offspring were expected to fit a 3:1 ratio of day-neutral: short-day phenotypes. The percentage of day-neutral offspring observed over all progenies was 70.9%, and was significantly smaller than the expected value of 75% (χ2 1 = 5.08, P < 0.02). The percentage of day-neutral offspring for individual progenies ranged from 41.4% to 84.8%, and highly significant heterogeneity was detected among progenies (χ2 9 = 40.3, P < 0.01). Selfed progeny means for the cumulative late-summer flowering score calculated using the day-neutral fraction of offspring varied from 1.31 to 2.35 and progeny means for the number of inflorescences per plant ranged from 3.5 to 9.9; these differences among progenies were highly significant (P < 0.01). These observations can be used to conclusively reject the hypothesis that day-neutrality in this domestic strawberry population is controlled by a single locus.

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Clara Pelayo-Zaldívar, Jameleddine Ben Abda, Susan E. Ebeler and Adel A. Kader

( Pelayo et al., 2003 ). Sugars and acids together with aroma compounds are the primary constituents determining strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa Dutch.) flavor. Strawberries stored in CO 2 -enriched controlled atmospheres (CAs) ( Holcroft and Kader

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Masanori Honjo, Susumu Yui and Miyuki Kunihisa

The octoploid cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa Duch. (2 n = 8 x = 56), was derived from accidental hybridization between two American octoploid species, F . virginiana and F . chiloensis , during the early to mid-1700s ( Darrow

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Bielinski M. Santos and Ixchel Hernandez-Ochoa

annual hill production system Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 5 4 23 29 Macias-Rodriguez, L. Quero, E. Lopez, M.G. 2002 Carbohydrate differences in strawberry crowns and fruit ( Fragaria × ananassa ) during plant development J. Agr. Food Chem. 50 3317 3321 Menzel, C