Maryland Chesapeake Bay crab industry generates ≈20 tons of crab waste annually. The crab waste compost (CWC) was a mixture of crab chum and saw dust that had an initial EC of ≈26 dS·m–1. In Fall 1994, soft-pinched single stem `Annette Hegg Red' poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) in 15-cm azalea pots were grown in media containing Sunshine mix, 1 CWC: S base mix (BM), 1 CWC: 2 BM,. 1 CWC: 1 BM, or 2 CWC: 1 BM. Base mix is a 1 peat: 1 perlite (v/v). Fertigation treatment with 266 mg·liter–1 N from 30N–4.4P–8.8K was began on the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week after potting. The total fertigations ranged from 8 to 10 for the 13-week study. With Sunshine mix, shoot height and canopy diameter were ≈15% greater than with 16% CWC mix and were ≈27% greater than with 67% CWC mix. There was a ≈10% decreased in the shoot height and canopy diameter with increasing %CWC in mix from 17% to 67%, but there was no difference in number of branches among the CWC mixes.
Seventy-five years ago U.S. pomology was caught up in a ferment which marks the ebb and flow of any great agricultural industry. The beginnings of great things to come were in sight, though perhaps unrecognized as such, while the end of other eras was at hand. San Jose scale was being conquered, while peach yellows had destroyed the vast peach industry which bordered the Chesapeake Bay, an industry which made Maryland the leading peach state for a while. The demise of the peach industry was followed shortly by runaway plantings of apples from the mountains of Appalachia westward to Ohio; curiously a similar overexpansion developed in Washington and Oregon as well at that time. South Carolina was just beginning to plant peaches, and it would be 20 years before Michigan would commence peach breeding at South Haven. New Jersey had supported orchard fertilization experiments for 20 years, other Northeastern states for nearly as long. Cultivars were called varieties, and there were great numbers of them in all commercial deciduous fruit orchards. The leading apple cultivar by far was ‘Ben Davis’, but Stark Bros. Nursery had owned Jesse Hiatt's apple for 10 years, and was well under way toward making the 20th century, the ‘Delicious’ century in American apple production. The first high density apple orchard was already 8 years old, this a planting of ‘Wealthy’ trees on seedling rootstocks, spaced 10 × 10 feet, at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario. But this planting was an idea well ahead of its time, for more than 60 years would pass before the term “high density” would have any meaning in American or Canadian pomology.
Chesapeake Bay, where agricultural N has become an environmental pollutant. In an effort to reduce N pollution, the Environmental Protection Agency has enacted Total Maximum Daily Load limits on the amount of N that may enter the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
land use types, whether point or non-point source, in a watershed may become regulated by individual states and municipalities as is now the case in the Chesapeake Bay watershed ( Majsztrik and Lea-Cox, 2013 ). Shifts in policy within individual states
Impaired water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and other surface waters due to excess phosphorus (P) is receiving scrutiny from state and federal environmental regulatory agencies. Although agricultural operations are considered the largest single
Chesapeake Bay has been cited as a leading cause of submerged aquatic vegetation degradation and habitat loss for shellfish and fish species ( Brush and Hilgartner, 2000 ). Nearly 40% of the nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay have been attributed to
TMDLs currently is taking place in several watersheds across the United States, including Florida, California, and the mid-Atlantic region. Perhaps the most prominent example of eutrophication in the United States is the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW
important source of new N in areas such as Tampa Bay, FL. From 1999 to 2003, atmospheric deposition contributed 21% of N loads to Tampa Bay ( Anderson, 2006 ). Chesapeake Bay and other northeastern U.S. estuaries receive relatively more atmospheric N inputs
. Choopun, N. Sharma, A. Huq, A. Colwell, R.R. 2000 Genetic diversity of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 140 147
helping growers to comply with current or future regulatory standards such as the total maximum daily load limits for agrichemical contributions to the Chesapeake Bay watershed ( Majsztrik and Lea-Cox, 2013 ). A set of best management practices (BMPs