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Mark G. Lefsrud, John C. Sorochan, Dean A. Kopsell and J. Scott McElroy

., 2004 ; Kurilich et al., 1999 ; Lefsrud et al., 2005 , 2006 ). Kurilich et al. (1999) reported genotypic differences among subspecies of Brassica oleracea L. (broccoli) accounted for 79% of the variance of β-carotene concentration, 82% of the

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Sat Pal Sharma, Daniel I. Leskovar, Kevin M. Crosby and A.M.H. Ibrahim

al., 2008 ), though some reports on yield and component traits from India are available ( Dhakare and More, 2008 ; Yadav and Ram, 2010 ). Sweetness, flavor, texture and phytonutrient levels of β-carotene and vitamin C in flesh tissue are the

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Mark G. Lefsrud, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

Huner, 2004 ). The carotenoid pigments lutein (L) and β-carotene (BC) absorb strongly in the blue region with maximum absorption occurring at 448 and 454 nm (in acetone), respectively ( Hopkins and Huner, 2004 ). Previously, maximum biosynthesis of plant

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Xianzhi Zhou, Yufen Wu, Sheng Chen, Yang Chen, Weiguang Zhang, Xintao Sun and Yijie Zhao

chronic diseases ( Alves-Rodrigues and Shao, 2004 ; Chuwers et al., 1997 ; Gaziano et al., 1995 ; Johnson, 2002 ; Rao and Rao, 2007 ; Slattery et al., 2000 ). In addition, women with higher circulating levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein plus

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Mark Lefsrud, Dean Kopsell, Carl Sams, Jim Wills and A.J. Both

significant decrease in lutein and β-carotene was measured in daylily ( Hemerocallis disticha Donn ex Sweet) when oven dried at 48 °C compared with −53 °C freeze drying ( Tai and Chen, 2000 ). Cinar (2004) reported that freeze drying reduced the losses of

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel and J. Scott McElroy

antheraxanthin, β-carotene, epoxy-lutein, phytoene, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin up to 21 d after treatment (DAT) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L). Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine leaf tissue pigment responses to mesotrione

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, Dennis E. Deyton, Kristin R. Abney, David E. Kopsell and Larry Robertson

). Carotenoid formation is highly conserved throughout all plant species with six primary functioning carotenoids (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin) normally present in leafy tissues ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoid

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams and David E. Kopsell

, via phytoene synthase ( Gross, 1991 ). The carotenoid pathway branches at the cyclization reactions of lycopene to produce carotenoids with either two β-rings (e.g., β-carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) or carotenoids

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Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell

lutein (3R,3′R,6′β,ɛ−carotene-3,3′diol), an oxygenated xanthophyll, and β-carotene (β,β−carotene), a hydrocarbon carotene. β-carotene and also zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin are a group of carotenoids that contain two β

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Dean A. Kopsell, Kimberly J. Whitlock, Carl E. Sams and David E. Kopsell

and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 71 1555 1562 Kopsell, D.A. Kopsell, D.E. Lefsrud, M.G. Curran-Celentano, J. Dukach, L.E. 2004 Variation in lutein, β-carotene, and chlorophyll