Using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS), an interdisciplinary team developed an accession information system for 6 crops: Chinese cabbage, (Brassica campestris, L. Pekinensis group); soybean, (Glycine max L.); mungbean, (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek var. radiata); tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum, mill.); sweet potato, (Ipomoea batatas, (L.) Lam.); and potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.).
During a 6 day sprouting period, carbohydrates and lipids decreased in soybean seeds (Glycine max L.). Stachyose and raffinose which are not digestible by humans, decreased about 80% in 3 days and disappeared in 6 days. Protein decreased slightly while amino acids increased rapidly. Taste acceptability of 3-day-old soybean sprouts and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek var. radiata) sprouts were similar.
The effect of 12 and 16 hours of light on flowering was studied in field plot experiments with 1602 accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata var. radiata) and 4 related species. Mung bean, adzuki bean, (V angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi var. angularis) and moth bean (V. aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) appear to have a high incidence of day-neutral types when compared with the black gram (V. mungo (L.) Hepper) and rice bean (V. umbellata (Thumb.) Ohwi & Ohaski) germplasm collections of mung bean and related species show an increase of day-neutral types of latitudes distant from the equator.
Selected putative inhibitors of ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis (actinomycin D and 6-methylpurine) or protein synthesis (cycloheximide and puromycin) were examined for their effects on root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz.) cuttings in the presence or absence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Only 6-methylpurine completely inhibited root formation at concentrations that did not cause visible injury. Cycloheximide was most inhibitory when applied at the same time as NAA. Application of 6-methylpurine up to 12 hours after NAA uptake completely blocked root formation; thereafter its effect declined with time. This decline in response was correlated with enlargement of the nucleus and nucleolus in hypocotyl cells preparatory to cell division.
Methanolic extracts from leaves, young stems, and old stems of five Acer (maple) spp. were tested for their effects on adventitious root initiation in mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilcox’) cuttings. An extract from the leaves of A. ginnala strongly stimulated root initiation, and the active compounds in this fraction were not synergistic with IAA. This extract was more stimulatory than IAA on mung bean cuttings and stimulated root initiation in softwood cuttings of A. saccharinum and A. griseum. Preliminary characterization of this extract indicates that it is a phenolic compound and/or a weak acid. Chemical name used: 1H-indoIe-3-acetic acid (IAA).
The mean rate of deterioration of green gram mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilcz.) sprouts stored at 0, 2.5, 5 or 10°C increased linearly with temperature. The sprouts reached the lower limit of salability in about 8.5, 5.5, 4.5 and 2.5 days at the respective temperatures. There was no symptom of chilling injury. The rates of CO2 production were 23, 29, 42 and 96 mg/kg— hr, at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10°, respectively, when measured 1 day after the sprouts were harvested. The corresponding rates of ethylene production were 0.15, 0.05, 0.24 and 0.90 μl/kg-hr.
The distribution of 14C-photosynthates was examined in pot-grown Tainan-1 mung bean plants (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. radiata). Whole plants were assimilated with 14CO2 at anthesis, and at 7 and 17 days after anthesis. The 14C-photosynthate fixed at anthesis was retained mostly in the vegetative tissue. However, of the 14C-photosynthate fixed at early pod development stage (i.e. 7 days after anthesis), 15-26% of the assimilated 14C was detected in the reproductive tissue within 24 hours after exposure, whereas about 43% was detected at maturity (i.e. 38 days after anthesis). When plants with full grown pods (i.e. 17 days after anthesis) were treated, 70% of the 14C was detected in the reproductive tissue 24 hours after exposure and at maturity.
A description for the design and use of a flowing solution culture for the mung bean bioassay is presented. A single module for the system is an assembly of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe, Tygon tubing, and 12 hypodermic syringe barrels to accomodate 60 cuttings of mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz, (5 per syringe barrel). Solution is circulated by an electric fluid pump. A comparison of this system with conventional vial culture indicates no difference in mean root numbers and their standard deviation, although a more stable solution pH is maintained in the flowing system. In the vial system, pH drifted by as much as 1.4 units within 12 hours, but only 0.2 units in the flowing system. The system presented is ideal for investigations where a stable rooting environment is required.
Mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz.] hypocotyls, growing on their stock plants, were induced to produce adventitious roots by treatment with indolebutyric acid (IBA). Rooting was hastened further and increased by concurrent treatment with ACC, the biosynthetic precursor to ethylene. Further increases in rate of root emergence and root numbers occurred when these treatments were applied on rewarming of mung bean plants pretreated with low temperature (15°C). Rooting was inhibited by AVG, an inhibitor of ACC biosynthesis, and this inhibition was reversed by concurrent treatment with ACC. The results suggest requirements for auxin and ethylene to optimize root initiation. Chemical names used: 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and [S-(E)]-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)- 3-butanoic acid (AVG).
The mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important short-duration annual grain legume. Mungbean is grown principally for its edible dry seeds, which are high in protein, easily digested, and prepared in numerous forms for human consumption; e.g., as a green vegetable and for sprouts. Other attributes of the crop include drought tolerance, high lysine content as compared to cereal grains, low production of flatulence, and wide adaptability. Commercial production occurs throughout Asia, Australia, the West Indies, South America, and tropical and subtropical Africa. In North America, production is centered in northern Texas and Oklahoma. Annual world mungbean production is estimated at 1.4 million t harvested from ≈3.4 million ha (1). In the United States >50 million kg of bean sprouts are produced annually from 8.3 million kg of mungbean seeds (4).