Open-pollinated (OP) onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars are primarily in normal (N) fertile cytoplasm; however, specific cultivars possess both N and sterile (S) cytoplasm or are exclusively in S cytoplasm. It is unclear whether the presence of S cytoplasm in OP cultivars is due to ancient or recent introduction or both. Restriction-enzyme analysis of the chloroplast DNA established that S cytoplasm has been introgressed into OP onion cultivars since its discovery in 1925. `Valencia Grano' (released in 1927), `New Mexico Early Grano' (1931), `Texas Early Grano (TEG) 502' (1947), and `Temprana' (1979) are in N cytoplasm; S cytoplasm was introduced into the population `TEG 502 PRR', and subsequent selections (`NuMex BR1' and `NuMex Sunlite') are in S cytoplasm. The inbred `TEG 951 C' and `Texas Grano 1015Y' possess a mixture of N and S cytoplasm and, because these two onions originated from self-pollinations of single plants, bulb or seed mixtures or both must have occurred.
The edible Alliums are economically important world-wide. The bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the most widely grown. The Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum) has many desirable characters, e.g., resistance to pink root, Thrips, smut, maggot, and Botrytis. Transfer of pink root resistance from A. fistulosum into A. cepa has been attempted for over 60 years. However, sterility of the F1 hybrid is a barrier and there is little evidence of gene introgression during backcrossing to A. cepa. Dr. Corgan has made crosses between A. fistulosum as the seed parent and A. cepa. He backcrossed the F1 hybrids to A. cepa and generated BC2 progenies which showed excellent pink root resistance. RFLPs in the chloroplast genome showed all BC2 progenies had either the normal or sterile cytoplasm of A. cepa. This may be due to not strictly maternal inheritance of the chloroplast DNA or a seed mixture during backcrossing. Other interspecific hybrids and their BC1 progenies had the cytoplasm of A. fistulosum. Nuclear RFLPs show hybrid patterns in the F1 plants. BC1 progenies possess some A. fistulosum markers as evidence of DNA introgression from A. fistulosum into the backcross progenies.
Allium fistulosum L. (bunching onion) is resistant to many of the important diseases and pests of Allium cepa L. (bulb onion). Although the first interspecific hybrids were generated more than 50 years ago, there is no conclusive evidence that any desirable trait in bunching onion has been successfully transferred to bulb onion by backcrossing. We identified RFLPs in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to assess DNA transfer from bunching to bulb onion by backcrossing an interspecific hybrid to a bulb onion. Polymorphisms in the chloroplast genome established that the interspecific hybrid and three putative backcross plants had the cytoplasm of a bunching onion. All 57 random cDNA probes detected polymorphisms between the bulb and bunching onion for at least one of two restriction enzymes. The backcross progenies always possessed the bulb-onion fragments and an excess of probes detected the bunching-onion fragments. Only one plant showed an acceptable fit to the expected 1:1 backcross ratio. Significant deviations from expected segregation ratios may be the result of abnormal meiosis in the interspecific hybrid. However, these observations could also be explained by a previously proposed nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction conditioning preferential survival in the bunching-onion cytoplasm of eggs carrying bunching-onion chromosomes.
These studies were conducted to determine the effect of 1) temperature on P leaching from a soilless medium amended with various P fertilizers, 2) water application volume on P leaching, and 3) various fertilizers on P leaching during production and growth of marigolds (Tagetes erecta L. `Hero Flame'). Increasing temperature linearly decreased leaching fraction; however, total P leached from the single (SSP) or triple (TSP) superphosphate-amended medium did not differ regardless of temperature. Despite a smaller leaching fraction at higher temperatures and no change in the total P leached, P was probably leached more readily at higher temperatures. More P was leached from the medium amended with uncoated monoammonium phosphate (UCP) than from the medium containing polymer-coated monoammonium phosphate (CTP) at all temperatures, and more P was leached from UCP-amended medium at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. More P was leached from TSP- than from SSP-amended medium and from UCP- than from CTP-amended medium regardless of the water volume applied, but leachate P content increased linearly as water application volume increased for all fertilizers tested. Plant dry weights did not differ regardless of P source. Leachate electrical conductivity (EC) was lower with TSP than with SSP. Leachate EC was also lower with CTP than with UCP. A higher percentage of P from controlled release fertilizer was taken up by plants rather than being leached from the medium compared to P from uncoated fertilizers.
Research reports documenting phosphorus leaching from soilless container media has changed commercial nursery phosphorus fertilizing practices. However, rhododendron growers are concerned that phosphorus levels are adequate as plants begin setting flower buds in July and August. Medium solution of 10 to 15 ppm P are recommended. Five replicated leachate samples were collected from 6 phosphate sources for 11 weeks following surface application to 2 container grown rhododendron cultivars. Each fertilizer source wax blended to an analysis of 14.0N-11.2P-5.0K except a 14.0N-0P-5.0K control. Phosphate sources included Diammonium Phosphate, Triple superphosphate, Sulfur coated Diammonium Phosphate, Sulfur coated triple superphosphate, and a commercial rhododendron sulfur coated fertilizer. With the exception of control, all treatment leachate phosphorus levels ranged from 180 to 145 ppm two days and 85 to 75 ppm one week after application. All sources ranged from 45 to 10 ppm weeks 2-5 and were lower than 10 ppm weeks 7-11. Leachate levels of the control were below 10 ppm at all sample times. Bud set and foliar P levels were different among phosphate treatments, but growth index measurements were not significant.
One of the more effective means of developing a smaller than standard apple tree is to graft the desired variety onto East Mailing (EM) IX rootstock. This combination results in a tree from 1/3 to 1/2 standard size. A decisive explanation for the mechanism of dwarfing by EM IX has not appeared in the literature. Of the suggested factors which might result in dwarfing by EM IX rootstock, those which involve organic constituents appear to be most plausible. It has been shown that EM IX is not deficient in fat, starch, reducing sugars, and disaccharides (3, 10). Also there is evidence to indicate that neither the root system (11) nor water (4) is limiting the growth of a dwarfing rootstock.
Seven peach clones were assessed for wound response using suberin deposition, lignification, and lignification + suberization as criteria. Suberin and lignin were measured fluorometrically using a new technique that permits unimpeded observation of suberin autofluorescence. Suberin deposition was first observed in cells of the impervious tissue which forms prior to phellogen generation at the wound. Suberin deposition measured as early as 7 days postwounding was negatively correlated with peach canker incidence.
Foliar applications of 2, 3, 4, 6-di-o-isopropyl-idene-2-keto-L-gulonate (dikegulac) at rates of 0.2-0.3% resulted in growth reductions comparable with l,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione (MH) or methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (chlorflurenol). Where terminal leaf abscission occurs, tree appearance after treatment is sometimes better than that of trees treated with either MH or chlorflurenol. Growth reduction from trunk banding with dikegulac n-pentyl ester was observed only on Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.; chlorflurenol in trunk banding has a much wider species range and is effective at lower concn.