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This study investigated effects of two pesticide applications regimes, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), in which pesticides were only applied to affected plants when damage was noticed, and Traditional, in which pesticide applications were made on a scheduled and preventative basis, on growth and health of container grown plants. Field research was conducted at a large wholesale nursery in the piedmont region of South Carolina. An isolated portion of the nursery contained eight beds that housed 25 species of woody and herbaceous ornamentals. IPM beds were subjected to weekly in-depth scouting of indicator species, and all other plant materials in both treatments were visually checked for problems on a weekly basis. The study began in June 1998 with weekly scouting ending in late October. Monthly scouting continued through the winter of 1999. Runoff water was collected from the treatments after all pesticide applications and analyzed to determine concentrations of chemicals. Plant health was rated at study's end to allow comparison between treatments. Amounts of isoxaben detected in runoff water were 7.9 g for the traditional treatment and 0.9 g for the IPM treatment. Amounts of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalinol were similarly lower for the IPM treatment. Preliminary results indicate that plant growth was similar for both treatments.

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The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is the primary insect pest of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in tropical and subtropical regions, causing both foliar and tuber damage. In contrast, the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) is the most important insect pest in the northern potato production latitudes. The codon-modified Bacillus thuringiensis Bt-cry5 gene (revised nomenclature cry1IaI), specifically toxic to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, was transformed into cultivar Spunta using an Agrobacterium vector to provide resistance to both potato tuber moth and Colorado potato beetle. The Bt-cry5 gene was placed downstream from the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Two transgenic 'Spunta' clones, G2 and G3, produced high levels of mortality in first instars of potato tuber moth in detached-leaf bioassays (80% to 83% mortality), laboratory tuber tests (100% mortality), and field trials in Egypt (99% to 100% undamaged tubers). Reduced feeding by Colorado potato beetle first instars was also observed in detached-leaf bioassays (80% to 90% reduction). Field trials in the United States demonstrated that the horticultural performance of the two transgenic lines was comparable to 'Spunta'. These Bt-cry5 transgenic potato plants with high potato tuber moth resistance have value in integrated pest management programs.

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Rutgers Cooperative Extension and Cornell Cooperative Extension initiated a regional newsletter the Northeast Greenhouse IPM Notes. The goal of the newsletter is to improve greenhouse pest management practices through promotion of timely integrated pest management information that applies to the unique problems faced in the Northeastern United States. Interstate cooperation maximizes the professional expertise and resources available through several Land Grant Institutions. Extension educators at Cornell, Rutgers, Penn State Univ., and the Universities of Maryland and Connecticut, actively contribute feature articles, pest updates and other timely information through e-mail: Internet communication facilitates communication. The newsletter is prepared monthly and sent to 282 greenhouse growers, extension professionals and allied industry representatives in New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and other states. The newsletter is also published on the World Wide Web with color images of crop problems. Publishing of color images is facilitated by digital technology. This edition can be downloaded in color from the Rutgers Cooperative Extension Floriculture site: http://aesop.rutgers.edu/~floriculture/grower/ipmf.htm

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A research and extension program for increasing vegetable production in southeastern Virginia was launched by Virginia Cooperative Extension in 1997. The launch was triggered by the construction of a shipping point market in Southampton County. First, a market window study identified target crops and the harvest period when they could be most profitably marketed. Target crops were watermelon, sweet corn, snap beans, muskmelon, bell pepper, and pumpkin. Second, a technology transfer program was formulated that emphasized demonstrations, field days, classes, and workshops. On-farm demonstrations of intensive vegetable production techniques formed the foundations of the extension effort and focused on drip irrigation, plastic mulch on raised beds, water and nutrient monitoring, honey bee pollination, and integrated pest management (IPM). “Growing Vegetables for the Commercial Market” was the title of a short course offered in partnership with the local community college. Sixty-five graduates completed the course in 1999. Workshops were offered on farm labor, marketing, irrigation, and production techniques. On-farm research was conducted in support of the emerging vegetable industry. The focus was on sweet corn IPM, variety trials for watermelon and pumpkin, and soil and plant analysis. Information was made available to growers through a bimonthly newsletter, an annual bulletin entitled Commercial Production Recommendations, and VCE postings on the World Wide Web.

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The landscape/nursery/turfgrass industry is the largest agricultural industry in New Jersey, as well as one of the highest users of pesticides. In the lawn-care industry alone, more than 906,000 lbs of active ingredient of pesticides was used in 1990. Landscape Integrated Pest Management (LIPM) tactics have been commercially proven to reduce pesticide usage; however, adoption of LIPM has been slow. In 1993-94, a survey of 425 landscape contractors, arborists, groundskeepers, nurserymen, and turfgrass professionals was taken to determine attitudes toward adoption of LIPM tactics. Business changes, marketing, customer perceptions, educational needs, and attitudes toward alternative control tactics were assessed. Results show that the majority of landscapers are interested in LIPM for personal reasons, to reduce their own contact with pesticides. Contractors favor pesticide products that are cost effective and proven as opposed to environmentally “safe.” Concerns inhibiting LIPM adoption include potential customer dissatisfaction, recovering monitoring costs, and inadequate control. Challenges lie ahead in pest identification and control education, marketing programs, delays in profits, and writing bids.

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The dramatic reduction in available greenhouse insecticides and the potential for increased insect resistance has necessitated a change in insect control techniques. Because of the large acreage of greenhouse production in Pennsylvania and the need for a more environmentally effective method of controlling insects in greenhouses, an aggressive Integrated Pest Management research program was initiated and has been on-going since 1989. Our objectives were to develop a bibliography of major insect pests; to determine effectiveness of parasitoids on greenhouse and silverleaf whitefly, western flower thrip, and aphids; to reduce pesticide usage; and to comply with worker protection standards. The program was implemented by a joint venture among the Pennsylvania State Univ. faculty and technical staff, grower cooperators, the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, and the Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers Association. The IPM program was started with an active scouting and monitoring program in commercial houses to determine threshold levels. Control measures were implemented with biological controls, cultural management, and lastly chemical. In addition, the implementation of the results of this research to commercial growers has resulted in the formation of a Greenhouse Crop Management Association. Results of the 5-year research program are discussed.

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Consumer concerns about pesticide residues and environmental degradation are having a significant impact on the California grape industry. Growers are using a variety of practices, from integrated pest management to certified organic production, to reduce the amount of pesticides and other synthetic inputs used in vineyards. This experiment was established to test selected sustainable cultural practices in a mature `Thompson Seedless' vineyard. Treatments included in the experiment were row middle management (cultivated vs. perennial legume cover crop) and nitrogen fertilization (compost vs. synthetic). Vine nutritional status, yield, fruit composition, pruning weight, and population levels of the variegated leafhopper were monitored each season (1992–1994). In addition, efforts were expanded during the 1994 season to include assessment of spider, herbivorous mite, and beneficial arthropod densities. Conventional cultural practices (cultivation and synthetic fertilizer) produced the highest yields during the 1992 and 1993 seasons. This result may have been due to the nutritional status of vines, which was generally better for the cultivation and synthetic fertilizer treatment, especially in 1992. In 1994, significant treatment effects on yield were not observed, indicating that legume cover crop plots had become fully established. Sustainable cultural practices had little impact on growth, fruit composition, or insect pest pressure. `Thompson Seedless' grapes were grown for three seasons without the use of insecticides or herbicides. Vine diseases were managed by cultural practices and application of sulfur.

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The largest agricultural industry in New Jersey is the commercial landscape/nursery/turfgrass industry; it is also one of the highest users of pesticides. In the lawn care industry alone, >906,000 lb of pesticides (active ingredients) were used in 1990. A proven way to commercially reduce pesticide usage while maintaining landscape quality is through Landscape Integrated Pest Management (LIPM) tactics; however, adoption of LIPM nationally has been slow. In 1994–95, a survey of 525 landscape contractors, arborists, groundskeepers, and turfgrass professionals was conducted to determine attitudes towards adoption of LIPM tactics. Customer perceptions, products utilized, educational needs, and attitudes toward alternative control tactics were assessed. Results show the majority of landscapers do not wish to spray pesticides, and do utilize good horticultural methods. However, purchasing traditional pesticide products that are cost-effective and proven are favored relative to environmentally “safe” and new. Concerns constraining LIPM adoption include potential for customer dissatisfaction, recovering monitoring costs, increased knowledge requirement for LIPM tactics, and fear of inadequate control.

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California walnut farmers compete with pests and diseases to produce an economically viable crop. Current control strategies work reasonably well for most pest and diseases. However, the future of these techniques is a matter of speculation. This presentation describes current production practices and potential alternatives to “traditional” pest and disease control. Codling moth, walnut husk fly, mites, navel orangeworm, aphids, and scale are typical insect pests that have an impact on California walnut production. Spray decisions using Integrated Pest Management, beneficial insect releases, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, and orchard sanitation offer potential alternatives. Major diseases include: Phytophthora crown and root rot, crown gall, oak root fungus, and walnut blight. Control options include careful site selection and orchard management, resistant rootstocks, competitive bacteria for crown gall control, and copper compounds for walnut blight suppression. Weed growth is related to the amount of light reaching the orchard floor. Mature trees often shade the orchard floor, subsequently reducing the need for weed suppression. Herbicides are typically used for vegetation control. Choice of irrigation system, cultivation, mowing, cover crops, and flaming offer potential alternatives either alone or in combination with conventional herbicides.

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Oregon's Willamette Valley is home to 99% of the U.S. domestic production of hazelnuts, Corylus avellana. There are currently around 30,000 acres of hazelnuts in Oregon. Hazelnuts are a relatively low resource input crop when compared to other orchard crops. They require few pesticide applications, and are harvested mechanically. Oregon State Univ. (OSU) developed an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for hazelnuts in the middle 1980s that is widely adopted in the industry today. Sampling schemes and action thresholds have been developed for the filbertworm (the most important insect pest), as well as: obliquebanded leafroller, filbert leafroller, and filbert aphids. In an example of classical biological control, a filbert aphid parasite, Trioxysis pallidus, was imported from Europe in 1984. Trioxysis has successfully established itself throughout the industry. As a result, the need for aphid control sprays has been significantly reduced. Current research in hazelnut IPM is focused on a “soft pesticide” program that features an insect growth regulator for filbertworm control. Recent research with isotopically labeled nitrogen seeks to improve the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in the industry. The northern portion of the industry is affected by Eastern Filbert Blight. OSU research has secured registrations of effective fungicides and refined the control program for the blight. Work is being completed on a predictive model to quantify the extent of spore dispersal, based on accumulated rainfall.

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