Oil, corresponding in amount to 6-14% of the original nut weight, was extracted from intact macadamia kernels by immersing them in petroleum ether for 48 hours at room temperature. Drying the extracted nuts in a vented oven at 55°C for 24 hours removed the odor and taste of the solvent and their flavor seemed to equal or excel that of nonextracted nuts. Oil thus recovered and marketed could provide additional revenue to the macadamia industry. Nuts of M. tetraphylla and of M. integrifolia were equal in oil content (74.9%) with an iodine value of 71.8 and 75.4, respectively. Macadamia oil had outstanding stability. The 8 major fatty acids in the oil and their mean percentages in the 2 species and their F1 and F2 hybrids were: myristic (0.60), palmitic (8.7), palmitoleic (22.1), stearic (3.6), oleic (59.1), linoleic (1.8), arachidic (2.2), and eicosenoic (1.5). The mean protein content in the lipid free meal of the parental and F1 populations was 36.5%. Arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine made up about 52% of total amino acids recovered in each of the 2 species and the F1 generation.
Pecan nuts from eleven different locations ranging from 1000 heat units at Chetopa, Kansas during the twelve weeks prior to shuck split to 1675 heat units in Zavala County, TX. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased and decreased respectively in `Mohawk' in 1991 and 1992 as the temperature increased during the kernel development period Fatty acids in `Pawnee' responded the same as in `Mohawk' in 1992 but were variable in 1991. Limited data showed a reversal of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in `Osage' in response to kernel development temperature. Higher temperatures caused the testas of `Cheyenne' to be darker in 1991 and 1992. Total oil content of `Mohawk' increased heat units. However, higher temperatures decreased oil content in `Pawnee'. Clinical evaluation of pecans is needed to confirm Grundy's safflower work.
A single immature jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schnedier] embryo cultured in vitro produced as many as 18 asexual embryos per explant depending on the explant size and culture media composition. Cotyledonary structures arising from embryos contained wax bodies and liquid wax identical to that of jojoba seed. The induced asexual embryos, when excised and subcultured, frequently produced callus without forming multiple embryos.
Experiments conducted in greenhouse and field environments investigated the acute and chronic phytotoxic effects of several house-hold and commercially available soaps, detergents, and oils applied to tomato (Lycoperiscum esculentum Mill.). In addition, the effect of these treatments on greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporarium (Westwood), was investigated. In the greenhouse experiments, the number of whiteflies observed was negatively correlated with phytotoxicity (i.e., higher phytotoxicity = fewer whiteflies). Ivory Clear detergent at two rates of application (0.5% or 2.0%) caused the greatest phytotoxicity to seedling tomato plants. Addition of vegetable oils to a 0.5% Ivory Clear detergent solution did not affect phytotoxicity to the plants. While commercially available insecticidal soap (M-Pede) and a neem seed extract (Margosan-O) had little phytotoxicity, they provided only a slight reduction of whitefly populations. A field experiment conducted in the absence of insect pressure showed phytotoxic effects to tomato plants as a result of continued treatment with New Ivory detergent. Significantly lower yield from this treatment resulted from reduced flower and/or fruit production. None of the other compounds in the field experiment significantly affected the yield of tomato plants.
://www.stampnews.com/stamps/stamps_2013/stamp_1357919298_398033.html ; http://www.wnsstamps.post/en/stamps/AU007.03 ). In contrast to its worldwide contributions as an ornamental plant and as a tea producer, camellia oil is less known to the world despite it has long been important in
Aroma transfer is a problem common to both mixed and unmixed storage of agricultural commodities. The deleterious effect on palatability of certain fatty products by such materials as apples is well documented. Too, certain apple varieties may suffer physiological stress due to emanations by other varieties of apples. A number of methods for removal of objectionable odors in storage have been suggested in past years. Each of these systems has distinct advantages; yet, none is universally effective.
Volatile oils were extracted from aqueous leaf suspensions of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] cultivars Hamlin, Navel, and Valencia and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars Marsh and Ray Ruby. Pressurized air was used as the sparging gas, and volatile oils were collected in a C-18 cartridge. Gas-liquid chromatography was used to separate and quantify 17 volatile components. Significant quantitative differences for individual components made it possible to distinguish sweet orange from grapefruit (four components), `Marsh' from `Ray Ruby' grapefruit (two components), `Hamlin' from `Valencia' or `Navel' orange (six components), and `Valencia' from `Navel' (three components). The simplicity and sensitivity of the procedure suggest potential use for Citrus taxonomic, genetic, and breeding research.
A new problem of macadamia trees (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) in Hawaii is characterized by slight leaf chlorosis, followed by rapid leaf browning, and tree death. Ambrosia beetle [Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff and X. perforans Wollastan (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)] infestations and fungal fruiting bodies were present on trees that subsequently exhibited the decline pattern. `Ikaika' was the most susceptible cultivar, and tree death occurred 8.3 ± 2.6Sd months after beetle infestations were detected.
In the process of extracting essential oil from aromatic plants through steam distillation, there is the production of waste distillation water, which is released into the environment ( Lawrence, 2007 ; Topalov, 1989 ). The distillation water