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Banded cucumber beetle [BCB (Diabrotica balteata)], serpentine leafminer [SL (Liriomyza trifolii)], and aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are among the major insect pests that cause significant economic damage to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in southern Florida. Four romaine cultivars and three iceberg cultivars, currently used in Florida's lettuce production, were evaluated from Oct. 2010 to Jan. 2011 in separate field experiments for their responses to insect infestation. Lettuce cultivars differed significantly in their responses to infestations of BCB and aphids. Cultivar 70096 had the lowest percent (3.7%) of BCB feeding damage among the romaine cultivars. Romaine cultivar Manatee also had significantly lower BCB feeding damage (12.1%) than the susceptible cultivars Okeechobee (19.8%) and Terrapin (19.1%). The lowest level of infestation of aphids was observed on ‘Manatee’, followed by ‘70096’, whereas ‘Okeechobee’ and ‘Terrapin’ had severe infestation of aphids. The iceberg cultivars were similar to one another in their responses to BCB and SL but not in their response to aphid infestation. Yield was decreased from 3% to 37% for six of the seven cultivars grown under the adverse environmental conditions of insect infestations and cold weather in Dec. 2010, but the yield of ‘70096’ did not decline. The cultivars identified as resistant to insects can play an important role in integrated pest management (IPM), which may decrease pesticide application, reduce production costs, and protect the environment.

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The Wisconsin potato crop is managed intensively through multiple inputs of pesticide, fertilizer, and irrigation. Beginning in 1979, a multidisciplinary team at the Univ. of Wisconsin developed an effective Integrated Pest Management Program to address key management decisions associated with this crop. The program fostered the development of several private IPM businesses and continues to help increase the acceptance of IPM technology by the potato industry. Results of component and integrative research, funded by industry, state, and federal sources, provided the essential ingredients for development of computer software now used for managing the potato crop on ≈ 70,000 acres (28,330 ha) of potatoes in a multistate area. The software helps growers determine the need for and timing of critical crop inputs. By reducing or eliminating unneeded pesticide and irrigation applications, the software helps to improve overall production efficiency. Industry adoption of this software is providing the impetus for development of more comprehensive software that includes additional aspects of potato production as well as the production of crops grown in rotation with potato.

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An important aspect of organic farming is to minimize the detrimental impact of human intervention to the surrounding environment by adopting a natural protocol in system management. Traditionally, organic farming has focused on the elimination of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and a reliance on biological cycles that contribute to improving soil health in terms of fertility and pest management. Organic production systems are ecologically and economically sustainable when practices designed to build soil organic matter, fertility, and structure also mitigate soil erosion and nutrient runoff. We found no research conducted under traditional organic farming conditions, comparing bareground monoculture systems to systems incorporating the use of living mulches. We will be focusing on living mulch studies conducted under conventional methodology that can be extrapolated to beneficial uses in an organic system. This article discusses how organic farmers can use living mulches to reduce erosion, runoff, and leaching and also demonstrate the potential of living mulch systems as comprehensive integrated pest management plans that allow for an overall reduction in pesticide applications. The pesticide reducing potential of the living mulch system is examined to gain insight on application within organic agriculture.

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When Master Gardeners first begin a training class, their preconceived notions about concepts such as IPM, pests and pest management are usually very similar to those of the general gardening public. Master Gardeners interact extensively with home owners and are often either the first or the only person from an Extension office with whom an individual speaks. We designated part of their initial training to a module aimed at getting them to understand basic concepts about IPM, pests and pest management. Slides were used to review the different types of pests/pesticides and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles that apply to a) insects and related organisms, b) diseases and c) weeds. These were accompanied by very simple guidelines for each pest group, stressing that pesticides should not automatically be the home owner's first choice. The pesticide label reading portion of this module started with basic information about pesticide labels themselves. From there, Master Gardener trainees were led through an exercise where they had to find specific information on various labels: Sevin, RoundUp, Daconil 2787, Brush-B-Gon, Phyton 27, Dipel, and Amdro. For fruit and vegetable use, they had to find preharvest intervals and any restrictions on planting. For all products, they looked for rates, timing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—if listed, and noted label variations. Pre-training scores averaged 60% while post-training scores were 90% or higher.

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Electronic information systems that take advantage of new technological developments on the Web are a key towards fulfilling the mission of the extension educator; i.e., to help individuals, families and communities put research-based knowledge to work in improving their lives. Webpages are one key to achieving this goal, but vertical searches using search engines are tedious and inefficient. There is a need for a) rapid and easy access to verifiable information databases and b) the coordination of good information resources that are already available on the Web in an horizontal format. NurseryWeb was developed as an open information resource within a frames environment that enables users to gather information about a variety of nursery-related material; e.g., cultural information, diagnostic criteria for disease and pest identification, data on integrated pest management and marketing data. In addition, a password-protected communication resource within the page provides nurserymen with conferencing and direct email connections to nursery extension specialists through WebChat, as well as providing time-sensitive data, alerts, and links to professional organizations. A number of critical issues remain unresolved—e.g., the integrity of information links, data and picture copyright issues, and software support. Nonetheless, the ease of use, availability of information in remote areas at relatively low cost, and 24-hr access assures that this type of information provision will become dominant in the future.

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A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) voluntary program encourages the registration of pesticides that represent reduced risk to human health and the environment. A “reduced risk” designation for a pesticide depends on how its use will affect human health and the environment, pesticide resistance, and pesticide management. Prohexadione-Ca is a bioregulator being developed by BASF Corporation to control vegetative growth in apples with the effect of improving fruit production. BASF will petition the EPA to register prohexadione-Ca as a reduced risk pesticide in 1997 based on the following properties associated with its use: Prohexadione-Ca exhibits a very low mammalian toxicity and a low propensity for crop residues. Prohexadione-Ca rapidly dissipates in soil as a result of microbial metabolism and causes no detrimental ecological effects. There is no other hazard associated with the compound and no health risk for user or consumer is indicated. The use of prohexadione-Ca reduces the incidence of fireblight (and helps control this disease). The use of prohexadione-Ca reduces tree row spray volumes of other pesticides up to 25%. With these beneficial characteristics, prohexadione-Ca will fit exceptionally well into an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program, providing another “reduced risk” justification for the registration of prohexadione-Ca. The current situation of accepting prohexadione-Ca as a reduced risk pesticide and its registration status will be discussed.

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`Sunny' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), `Black Beauty' eggplant (Solanum melongena var. esculentum L. Nees.), or `Sugar Baby' watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] were nontreated, subjected to brushing (20 strokes twice daily) or drought conditioning (2 hours daily wilt), or maintained undisturbed using ebb-and-flow irrigation. One week after brushing or drought conditioning, plants were inoculated with western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) or green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Brushing and drought conditioning reduced plant height and shoot dry weight of all crops. Brushing of all three species generally reduced the number of thrips, as indicated by number of feeding scars or percent leaf area damaged. Drought conditioning did not affect thrips populations consistently. Undisturbed plants grown with ebb-and-flow irrigation exhibited the greatest damage from thrips. Brushing reduced the number of aphids on tomato relative to the nontreated controls. Drought did not reduce aphid populations consistently on any crop. Brushing for height control may be advantageous in an integrated pest-management program to control aphids and thrips.

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In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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Potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is a highly destructive pest of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the tropics and subtropics and causes significant damage to both leaves and tubers. Development of host plant resistance is a central component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program for potato tuber moth. The purpose of this research was to augment natural resistance by transforming potato with a codon-modified CryV-Bt gene using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques. `Lemhi Russet' potato and two clones with different host plant resistance mechanisms, USDA8380-1 (leaf leptines) and L235-4 (glandular trichomes), were transformed with the CryV-Bt gene. Gene integration of regenerated plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions and Southern analyses; gene transcription was evaluated by northern analyses. Detached leaf bioassays showed that high levels of Bt expression occurred in the CryV-Bt transgenic lines (`Lemhi Russet' and L235-4), providing up to 96% control of potato tuber moth larvae, compared with 3% and 54% control in L235-4 and USDA8380-1, respectively. These transgenic lines can be used for breeding purposes to develop cultivars for (and eventual introduction into) IPM systems.

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In Oct. 1996, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance that became Chapter 39 of the Administrative Code, mandating that City departments adopt integrated pest management (IPM) policies that promote nonchemical approaches to pest management and reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides. Eliminated on 1 Jan. 1997 were 1) category I chemicals (listed by EPA—most toxic; these are products marked “DANGER”); 2) cancer- or reproductive-toxicity chemicals (per State of California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986); and 3) possible, probable, or definite human carcinogens (per EPA). Eliminated on 1 Jan. 1998 were category II chemicals (listed by EPA—next most toxic; these are products marked “WARNING”). Eliminated on 1 Jan. 2000 will be category III chemicals (listed by EP— relatively less toxic; these are chemicals marked “CAUTION”), except for a list to be developed by 1 Mar. 1999 of low-toxicity chemicals commonly used in IPM programs. To date, 10 exceptions have been approved. Several pesticide-free research projects have been embarked on and on-going IPM training is underway for all city employees, both technical and nontechnical. Challenges remain for pesticide regulators and pest managers in implementing policy and encouraging change.

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