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Ibrahim I. Tahir and Hilde Nybom

juice was also used for measurement of soluble solids concentration (SSC) using a refractometer (Atago PR-100; Atago Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with, results expressed as equivalent to percent SSC at 20 °C. The Streif index was calculated as [firmness (SSC

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Ricardo Goenaga and David Jenkins

separated from stems, counted, and weighed again (fruit yield). Fruit from each tree were then composited by replication and cultivar. Representative fruit totaling 10% of those harvested were then used to determine soluble solids with a temperature

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Elias A. Moura, Pollyana C. Chagas, Edvan A. Chagas, Railin R. Oliveira, Raphael H. Siqueira, Daniel L.L. Taveira, Wellington F. Araújo, Maria R. Araújo and Maria L. Grigio

(measured in kilograms per plant); yield (measured in megagrams per hectare); fruit diameter and length (measured in millimeters); fruit, bark, pulp, and seed weight (measured in grams); firmness (measured in Newtons); soluble solids (measured in degrees

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Guohai Xia, Lailiang Cheng, Alan Lakso and Martin Goffinet

by a penetrometer (EPT-1-R; Lake City Technical Products, Kelowna, BC, Canada). Soluble solids concentration (percent) was measured from the expressed juice of the fruit used for firmness test with a portable digital refractometer (ATA-60 PAL-1; Atago

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Khalid F. Almutairi, David R. Bryla and Bernadine C. Strik

berries were frozen from each replicate on each harvest date in 2012 and later analyzed for soluble solids (°Brix), pH, and titratable acidity. The frozen samples were thawed and pureed in a blender and measured for soluble solids using a refractometer

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Solveig J. Hanson and Irwin L. Goldman

Earthy aroma and sweet flavor, conferred by the volatile terpenoid geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol) and sucrose, respectively, are two essential flavor components of table beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris). To elucidate the influence of genotype, growing environment, and fertilizer treatment on geosmin concentration and sucrose [as total dissolved solids (TDS)] in table beet, a field-based genotype × environment study was conducted using a split-split plot design. Four site × year combinations served as whole plots; MgSO4·H2O and CaSO4 comprised split plot fertilizer treatments; open-pollinated cultivars Bull’s Blood and Touchstone Gold, F1 hybrid Merlin, and inbred line W357B constituted split-split plot genotype treatments. Geosmin concentration was measured via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction, and TDS was measured via refractometry. Variation in geosmin concentration was attributable to a strong genotype effect and significant genotype × year and year × site interactions. Genotypes were observed to have characteristic geosmin concentration and variance, despite being grown in soils with widely divergent physical and chemical properties. While a significant genotype main effect was also present for TDS, it occurred in the context of significant four-way and three-way genotype × environment interactions, plus significant effects of year and year × site interaction. Neither geosmin concentration nor TDS was significantly influenced by fertilizer treatment or fertilizer × environment interactions, averaged across genotypes. Genetics determined a larger proportion of variance for geosmin concentration than TDS in the four table beet genotypes assessed, as reflected in repeatability measurements of 0.90 and 0.43, respectively. This experiment provides support for the primacy of genotype in determining table beet geosmin concentration and a comparatively moderate role of genotype in determining table beet TDS. Thus, genetic manipulation of table beet geosmin could yield cultivars with signature flavor characteristics to serve both niche and mainstream consumer groups, expanding market opportunities for breeders and growers.

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George E. Boyhan, Albert C. Purvis, William M. Randle, Reid L. Torrance, M. Jefferson Cook IV, Greg Hardison, Ronald H. Blackley, Heath Paradice, C. Randy Hill and J. Thad Paulk

Short-day onion (Allium cepa) variety trials were conducted in southeastern Georgia from 2000–03. Data collected and evaluated included total yield, graded yield, harvest date, number of seedstems, number of doubles, number of onion centers, bulb shape, disease incidence, bulb pungency, and storability in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Fifty-eight varieties were evaluated in the trials with 10 varieties appearing in all 4 years. Twenty-nine varieties appeared only once in the trials. Eight varieties had jumbo yields (≥3-inch diameter) that were not significantly different from the greatest jumbo yielding variety in 2 of the 4 years of testing and included `Century', `EX 19013', `Georgia Boy', `Mr. Buck', `Sapelo Sweet', `Savannah Sweet', `Sweet Vidalia', and `WI-609'. Early season varieties were strongly daylength dependent with foliar lodging occuring early and uniformly. Late season varieties were more prone to bacterial infection particularly if postharvest heat curing was employed. Although significant differences between varieties for seedstems (flower formation) and bulb doubling occurred almost every year, environmental conditions were an important part of their development. Five varieties had seedstems in 2 of the 3 years seedstems were prevalent that did not differ from the greatest number of seedstems for that year and included `Cyclops', `Georgia Boy', `Mr. Buck', `Pegasus', and `SSC 6372 F1'. `Sapelo Sweet' and `Sweet Advantage' had more than 5% bulb doubling in 3 years of the trials. Pungency as measured by pyruvate analysis ranged from 1.1 to 5.4 μmol·g–1 fresh weight (FW) over the 4 years of trials. There were nine varieties that were, for 2 years or more, among the greatest in percent marketable onions after 4.5 months of CA storage: `Georgia Boy', `Granex 1035', `Granex 33', `Ohoopee Sweet', `Sapelo Sweet', `Savannah Sweet', `Sweet Melissa', `Sweet Melody', and `SRO 1000'.

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M. Meheriuk, D.-L. McKenzie, G.H. Neilsen and J.W. Hall

Four green apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars, `Granny Smith', `Mutsu', `Newtown', and `Shamrock', were subjected to a factorial experiment of two rates of nitrogen fertilization and three concentrations of foliar urea sprays for 4 years. The higher rate of N (160 kg N/ha) had no effect on ground color or fruit quality relative to the lower rate of 80 kg N/ha. Urea sprays enhanced green pigmentation in `Granny Smith' and `Newtown' at harvest and retarded yellowing of fruit in all cultivars during air storage at 0C. Response was similar for urea at 0.5% and 1%, and urea sprays did not adversely affect quality. Urea sprays increased fruit N by 23% and 47% for the 0.5% and 1% concentrations, respectively.

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R. Karina Gallardo, Ines Hanrahan, Yeon A Hong and James J. Luby

centimeter TCA leading to optimal SSC in ‘Honeycrisp’. Although Robinson et al. (2009) signaled that under New York state growing conditions crop loads of five to six fruit/cm 2 TCA-yielded fruit with acceptable levels of soluble solids, field trials in

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Mingtao Zhu, Jun Yu, Sheng Wu, Meijun Wang and Guoshun Yang

resulting supernatants were used for enzyme assays. SOD and CAT activity levels were determined in accordance with the methods of Deng et al. (2014) . Determination of anthocyanin and total soluble solids (TSS) content. The extraction of anthocyanin from