Search Results

You are looking at 151 - 160 of 1,239 items for :

Clear All

Effects of N level (15 to 30 mm), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 ± 12 μmol·mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g·m-2·day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mm) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g·m-2·day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mm) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mm) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

Free access

Corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Bt) applied directly into the silk channel of a corn ear has been shown to be an effective pesticide against corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (CEW), and european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB). Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine the influence of application timing on ear quality at harvest. Two blocks of corn were planted during each year to observe treatment effects under varying populations of the two insect species. The treatment consisted of 0.5 mL (0.017 floz) of food grade corn oil containing a suspension of Bt at 0.08 g (0.003 oz) a.i. per ear applied directly into the silk channel at the husk opening. One treatment application was made on each silk day 3 through 11 from first silk; silk day 1 was the first day that 50% or more of ears had 2.5 cm (1 inch) of silk protruding from the husk. One treatment did not receive the oil + Bt suspension. All ears were harvested at milk stage, on silk day 25. The number of CEW larvae in treated ears increased with later application days in 2000, but not in 2001. Damage from larval feeding was mainly found near the tip of the ear, and damage ratings were lower compared to untreated ears for all treatment days for both plantings in 2000, and through application day 8 in the late planting of 2001. ECB larvae were reduced for all treatment days in both plantings in 2000 and the late planting of 2001. The percentage of ears rated as marketable (i.e., free of feeding damage) ranged from 71% to 100% in treated plots compared to 30% to 77% in the untreated plots. There was a linear decrease in marketability with later application days in two of the four plantings. The greatest decrease in marketability was after application day 7. Because the oil application affects kernel development at the tip, the length of ear with under-developed kernels, or cone tip, was measured. The number of ears with cone tip decreased linearly with the later application days in all plantings. There was 10% conetip or less after day 7 in 2000 and day 6 in 2001. The best combination of effective insect control resulting in the highest rates of marketable ears with the least degree of cone tip was achieved in this experiment by application of oil + Bt suspension on day 7. Year to year variation in the environment would suggest a range from day 6 to 8.

Full access

`Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was grown hydroponically at 20/16 °C, 24/20 °C, 28/24 °C, and 32/28 °C, day/night air temperatures to evaluate effects on pod and seed yield, flowering, harvest index, and oil content. Ten-day-old peanut seedlings were transplanted into rectangular nutrient film technique troughs (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m) and grown for 110 days. Growth chamber conditions were as follows: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) mean of 436 μmol·m-2·s-1, 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, and 70% ± 5% relative humidity. The nutrient solution used was a modified half-Hoagland with pH and electrical conductivity maintained between 6.5 to 6.7, and 1000 to 1300 μS·cm-1, respectively, and was replenished weekly. Vegetative growth (foliage, stem growth, total leaf area, and leaf number) was substantially greater at increasingly warmer temperatures. Reproductive growth was significantly influenced by temperature. Flowering was extremely sensitive to temperature as the process was delayed or severely restricted at 20/16 °C. The number of gynophores decreased with temperature and was virtually nonexistent at the lowest temperature. Pod yield increased with temperatures up to 28/24 °C but declined by 15% at the highest temperature (32/28 °C). Seed yield, maturity, and harvest index were highest at 28/24 °C. Oil content (percent crude fat) increased an average of 23% and was highest at the warmest temperature (32/28 °C). These results clearly suggest that vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as oil content of peanut in controlled environments, are best at warmer temperatures of 28/24 °C to 32/28 °C than at cooler temperatures of 20/16 °C to 24/20 °C.

Free access
Authors: and

`Granny Smith' apples (Malus × domestica Borkh) and `d'Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) were dipped in a 2.5%, 5%, or 10% stripped corn oil (α-tocopherol <3 mg·kg-1) emulsions, 2000 mg·L-1 diphenylamine (DPA), respectively, at harvest and stored in air at 0 °C for 8 months. Untreated fruit served as controls. In oil-treated apples and pears, ethylene and α-farnesene production rates were lower in early storage and higher in late storage than in control. Control fruit developed 34% scald in `Granny Smith' apples and 23% scald in `d'Anjou' pears after 6 months storage, whereas fruit treated with oil at 5% or 10%, or with DPA at 2000 mg·L-1 were free from scald. After 8 months storage, oil at 10% was as effective as DPA in controlling scald in pears, whereas in apples, fruit treated with 10% oil developed 18% scald and DPA-treated fruit were scald-free. DPA-treated apples developed 32% senescent scald, while 5% or 10% oil-treated fruit had none. Oil-treated fruit were greener, firmer, and contained more titratable acidity after 8 months of storage than control or DPA-treated apples and pears. In `Granny Smith', 100% of the controls and 79% of the DPA-treated fruit developed coreflush after 8 months of storage, but both 5% and 10% oil-treated fruit were free from coreflush. In `d'Anjou', 34% of the controls and 27% of the DPA-treated fruit showed decay after 8 months of storage, compared with 5% decay in 5% oiltreated fruit, and no decay in 10% oil-treated fruit.

Free access

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta, L.) plants were fertilized with urea, nitrokima and ammonium nitrate at the rates of 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg N/feddan (feddan = 4200 sqm). These fertilizers were added at three batches during the growing season.

The application of nitrogen fertilizers enhanced plant growth in terms of plant height, stem diameter, branch number and the dry weights of leaves, flowers and herb. Also, these fertilizers increased the volatile oil content in the leaves and flowers. The most effective fertilizer was ammonium nitrate especially when the highest rate was applied as it gave 3.87 g/plant compared to 2.28 g/plant for the control plants.

The contents of photosynthetic pigments, reducing and total soluble sugars were increased compared to the control plants.

Free access

Tung trees ( Vernicia fordii Hemsl.) are native to China and were grown in the U.S. Gulf Coast region, mostly U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cold hardiness zones 8 and 9, for tung oil production from 1937 to 1969 ( Robb and Travis, 2013

Free access

Dormant application of soybean oil formulations (SBO) effectively thin peach flower buds and delay bloom. Alternatively, thinners applied at bloom, such as ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), must be applied before pollination is complete. Consistent thinning with ATS is complicated by bloom duration and weather at bloom. Overall, 1995 peach bloom in South Carolina was delayed and progressed rapidly from 20% to 90% bloom in 2 days. Under these conditions, we compared thinning response of control (untreated), ATS (2%) applied at 70% bloom, SBO concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, or 10%) applied 3 weeks before bloom (WBB), and application time of 5% SBO (1, 2, or 3 WBB). SBO was not available for applications earlier than 3 WBB. Treatments were applied by hand gun to six replications of single-tree plots of Redhaven. ATS had no effect on fruit set, yield, or fruit size, contrary to normal bloom years. Flower bud death increased linearly from 8% to 28% with increasing rate of SBO. Delay in SBO application decreased bud death. SBO at 5%-10% rates caused minor delay of 50% bloom, did not effect bloom duration, and increased mean fruit weight over control. Maximum effect was achieved with 10% SBO, reducing fruit number/ha and firmness by 72% and 18% and increasing fruit weight and soluble solids by 67% and 5% from control, respectively. Results show the advantage of bud thinning with SBO during the dormant season in a short bloom duration year.

Free access

The effect of liquid lime sulfur (LS) and fish oil (FO) application during bloom on leaf photosynthesis (Pn) and pollen tube growth in apple (Malus ×domestica) flowers were investigated in order to determine their mode of action as a bloom thinning agent. LS increased the percentage of flowers with fewer than 10 pollen tubes per flower to more than 64% compared to 5% or less in the control. Pollen tubes were completely absent from 27% to 48% of flowers following LS treatment compared with fewer than 4% of flowers having no pollen tubes on control trees. These data indicate that 30% to 50% of flowers that open on the day of LS application are unlikely to set a fruit due to the complete inhibition of embryo fertilization. Increasing the rate of LS from 0.5% to 4% increased the proportion of flowers with limited pollen tube number in a concentration dependent manner. LS suppressed the rate of light saturated Pn; successive LS sprays during the bloom period had an additive effect on suppression of Pn and fruit set. In one study the reduction in Pn was greatest 12 days after application of LS but Pn recovered by about 19 days after initial treatment. In a second study Pn of primary spur leaves had still not recovered when measured 57 days after the first of three applications. FO had no effect on the number of pollen tubes per flower, but reduced Pn and fruit set by about 10% and 20% respectively. An increase in the proportion of flowers with no pollen tubes, and therefore no embryo development, can account, at least in part, for the thinning response following application of LS to apples during bloom. It is likely that suppression of Pn contributes to the thinning response, although the importance of this mechanism will depend on perturbation of the total carbohydrate supply to developing fruit.

Free access

The potential to use percentage of dry matter (DM) and/or oil of the flesh of `Hass' avocado as a maturity standard to determine the latest harvest for acceptable fruit quality, was investigated. `Hass' avocado fruit were harvested from early October to mid-January from a commercial orchard in subtropical Queensland. The percentage of DM and oil changed little during the harvest period, and the eating quality of the flesh remained high. However, the incidence of body rots (caused mainly by Colletotrichum sp.) and the flesh disorders grey pulp and vascular browning, increased with harvest. These results indicate that percentage of DM and oil are not reliable late-maturity standards because of the inconsistent change with later harvests, and that disease and internal disorders can be the main determinants of latest acceptable harvest, rather than eating quality.

Free access


Oil, corresponding in amount to 6-14% of the original nut weight, was extracted from intact macadamia kernels by immersing them in petroleum ether for 48 hours at room temperature. Drying the extracted nuts in a vented oven at 55°C for 24 hours removed the odor and taste of the solvent and their flavor seemed to equal or excel that of nonextracted nuts. Oil thus recovered and marketed could provide additional revenue to the macadamia industry. Nuts of M. tetraphylla and of M. integrifolia were equal in oil content (74.9%) with an iodine value of 71.8 and 75.4, respectively. Macadamia oil had outstanding stability. The 8 major fatty acids in the oil and their mean percentages in the 2 species and their F1 and F2 hybrids were: myristic (0.60), palmitic (8.7), palmitoleic (22.1), stearic (3.6), oleic (59.1), linoleic (1.8), arachidic (2.2), and eicosenoic (1.5). The mean protein content in the lipid free meal of the parental and F1 populations was 36.5%. Arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine made up about 52% of total amino acids recovered in each of the 2 species and the F1 generation.

Open Access