can also be minimized by fall tillage of crop debris and establishment of a grass or legume winter cover crop ( Phatak et al., 1991 ).
Early adoption of conservation tillage systems was primarily related to concerns for soil erosion. A substantial
were spaced at 45 cm on each line, and each emitter delivered 2.27 L·h −1 of water. Pressure compensation ensured consistent flow from each inline emitter throughout the entire length of tubing and the emitter design prevented debris from clogging
considerable economical losses under ideal conditions for disease incidence ( Ji et al., 2007 ). Once established, R. solanacearum can survive in the soil on the roots of asymptomatic plants, weeds, and plant debris ( Elphinstone et al., 1998 ; Granada and
pathogen can survive in soil on crop debris ( Feil et al., 2003 ; Urena-Padilla et al., 2001 ). Because C. acutatum conidia are transported by splashing water ( Ntahimpera et al., 1997 ), and water on the leaf surface provides a conducive environment for
gently flowing water. Any cellular debris remaining on cuticles was redigested overnight in fresh enzymatic solution and cuticles were rinsed again for 2 to 4 h in running distilled water. Intact cuticles were floated onto a piece of Teflon and left to
13,000 rpm for 10 min to eliminate any debris. The supernatant was then placed in 1.5-mL tubes, allowed to dry at room temperature, and the dry pellet stored at freezing until use.
Thin-layer chromatography development.
-precipitated. Cell debris and precipitates were removed by a 30-min spin at room temperature at 14,000 rpm through QIAshredder spin columns (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA). The cleared lysate was transferred to a new tube and binding buffer and ethanol were added to bind
to the pumpkin industry Plant Dis. 93 772 782 Barak, J.D. Koike, S.T. Gilbertson, R.L. 2001 The role of crop debris and weeds in the epidemiology of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce in California Plant Dis. 85 169 178 Bineeta, S.B. Majumder, S. Kumar, S