Several postharvest quality parameters of cantaloupe fruit were grown under different organic and mineral fertilization schemes We evaluated a Laguna hybrid (Asgrow) cantaloupe grown under a design of blocks completely randomized, with three fertilizer treatments corresponding to: T1, goat manure; T2, simple fertilization; T3 mixed fertilization, with six replications each. The fruits were mature-harvested and stored in a room with an average temperature of 18°C for posterior laboratory analysis. The results showed different effects of the treatments on the following parameters: total soluble solids, diameter of the fruits, and thickness of the pulp, and showed no effects on consistency of fruits, cavity, dry matter, and fresh weight. All these parameters decreased during the period of storage. The organic manure treatments showed the best values of most of the evaluated parameters.
In a randomized complete-block design, two separate experiments were conducted to study the response of lead tree Leucaena leucocephala and Hibiscus rosa sinensis to the application of the organic fertilizer, SoilRich. Seedlings of both species were grown in pots filled with growing media containing sandy soil and SoilRich. SoilRich was added at the rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% (v/v). The obtained results indicated that the application of SoilRich significantly increased plant height, stem elongation, branch number, shoots fresh and dry weights, and enhanced root growth of both Leucaena leucocephala and Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium percentages in the shoots were increased in both species as the applied rate of SoilRich was increased. SoilRich treatments increased the water holding capacity of the soil. Moreover, they increased organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium percentages in the soil. The application of SoilRich at 15% gave the best results.
A participatory, on-farm research and extension program has been established around 16 demonstration comparisons of biologically integrated soil building–pest management systems and conventionally managed systems within the West Side row crop area of California's San Joaquin Valley. In each of the biologically integrated parcels, cover crops and composted organic materials are integrated into rotations wherever appropriate, whereas in the conventionally managed parcels, mineral fertilizer applications are made. Pest management practices are evaluated and biologically and informationally intensive alternatives are developed through a participatory process. Indices of soil quality including nutrient status, water stable aggregates, organic matter content, and phospholipid fatty acids are routinely monitored. Information related to the objectives, structure and monitoring activities of this project during the establishment phase will be discussed.
and Agriculture (BMVEL) within the “organic farming” funding line.
Oral Session 23—Organic Horticulture 29 July 2006, 3:30–5:30 p.m. Oak Alley Moderator: Matthew Kleinhenz
Fresh manure is normally broadcasted on the soil surface in vegetable growing areas of Jordan as a source of nutrients and organic matter. However, it can be an environmental pollutant and may lead to the outbreak of many health-related pests, especially houseflies. Field experiments were conducted in two locations to study the effect of in-row composting of four different fresh manures and olive pomace on preplant weed control in vegetables. In the first experiment, main treatments were as follows. 1) Organic materials were applied preplant and then the soil was covered with black polyethylene (BPE) sheets for 6 weeks (M). 2) Treatments were the same as in (M) but the soil surface was covered by BPE mulch for the whole growing season (MP). 3) There was soil incorporation of organic materials preplant, but the soil surface was unmulched during the 6-week period and weeds were controlled chemically later in the season (MC). 4) For the control (C), fresh organic materials were soil incorporated manually at time of planting. Each main treatment included four subtreatments. Each subtreatment received a different source of organic material: cow, poultry, or sheep manure or olive pomace. In the second experiment, the rates of poultry manure (0, 5, and 10 kg·m-2) comprised the main treatments. Each treatment included four subtreatments in which the manure was soil-incorporated then subplots were covered by BPE sheets for either 0, 2, 4, or 6 weeks. The composting process in the main treatments M and MP raised soil temperatures significantly at a 15-cm depth above soils without manure amendments. Soil temperatures were higher, especially with poultry manure, athough not significantly different in all cases. Composting poultry manure was more effective in reducing weed dry weights compared with other organic materials.
A 7.5 cm layer (.1 m3) of fresh or 8-year-old oak sawdust was applied to 1.7 m2 plots as a mulch or tilled in to a depth of 10 cm. Saw dust-treated and control plots received 0.45 or 227 g of nitrogen applied as ammonium nitrate. Five one-year-old `Lynwood Gold' forsythia plants were planted in each of the 90 plots in the experiment in September 1992 and were pruned in March 1993 to 20 cm above the soil surface. Plant height, soil pH and levels of Na, organic matter, P, K Ca, Mg, NO3 and NH3 in the soil were determined following the 1993 growing season. Fresh and aged saw dust reduced plant growth by 40 and 31% respectively when incorporated without supplemental nitrogen. Adding the high rate of nitrogen overcame the inhibition caused by aged but not fresh sawdust. Both materials significantly reduced soil nitrate content even when used as a mulch and reduced phosphorus when incorporated. Organic matter content of sawdust-amended plots averaged over twice that of control plots. Neither material had a significant influence on pH as determined one year after incorporation.
Most of the studies on the effect of humic acids on micronutrient uptake by plants has been carried out in nutrient solutions. Commercial companies have tried, without adequate experimental support, to extend the conclusions of these studies to the production of vegetables in agricultural soils. The effect of humic acids on micronutrient uptake by plants has been attributed' to (a) the improved supply of micronutrients to the soil solution caused by a higher rate of release from soil minerals (probably via chelate formation by humic acids) and (b) the improved uptake of micronutrients as consequence of the larger root system promoted by hormonal compounds in the humic acids. In soils with limiting concentration of micronutrients (such as some calcareous soils) and low content of organic matter, chelation of micronutrients by added commercial humic acids might increase their availability to plants. However, in agricultural soils with and adequate content of organic matter, no significant effect of commercial humic acids on micronutrient uptake by plants can be detected.
'Macoun'/Budagovsky 9 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees were planted in May 1998 in one of four preplant treatments that were soil incorporation of: 1) control, no phosphorus (P); 2) 90 g P per tree; 3) 128 kg compost per tree; and 4) 90 g P and 128 kg compost per tree. Preplant addition of P had no effect on soil organic matter, P, magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) in the first three seasons after planting, but lowered soil potassium (K) in the second season. Foliar nutrients, tree growth and flowering were also not affected by P. The addition of compost increased soil organic matter and P in the first season after planting, and pH, K, Mg, and Ca in the first three seasons. The addition of compost increased foliar nitrogen and K in all three seasons, and decreased foliar Mg in the first season. Compost incorporation increased shoot length in the first season, trunk cross-sectional area in the first two seasons, tree height and the number of growing points in third season, and flowering in the third and fourth seasons. Compost addition was more effective than P fertilization for increasing tree growth during the establishment years.
The objective of this study was to determine the persistence and leaching of the herbicide oxadiazon in five substrates. The substrate mixtures consisted of the following: peatmoss, compost, and sand in the following proportions: 1:1:0, 3:3:2, 1:1:2, 1:1:6, and 0:0:1 in 5-liter containers. Rates of oxadiazon used were 4 and 8 kg a.i./ha on two separate split-split plots. Each experimental design had three factors: five substrates, four harvest times (24 h; 1, 2, and 3 months) and five soil depths (0–2, 2–4, 4–6, 6–8, 8– cm). Only herbicide persistence and leaching from the various substrates were investigated in this experiment; therefore, we did not remove plant material. Substrate oxadiazon residues were determined by gas chromatography analysis, and it was shown that leaching was more evident in media with a lower percentage of organic matter. In addition, oxadiazon did not leach below 4 cm in conventional substrate (1 peatmoss: 1 compost: 1 sand, respectively). The persistence of oxadiazon was affected by soil composition and herbicide persisted more in substrates with great percentage of organic matter.