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Francis X. Mangan, Claire Kozower, and William Bramlage

Latinos are 6% of the population of Massachusetts and are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in this state. Due to the increase in Latinos and other ethnic groups, farmers in Massachusetts are diversifying their crops to meet the demands of these new markets. Cilantro is a popular herb in Latino cuisine; however, many farmers in Massachusetts are not familiar with production and postharvest practices for this plant. A factorial experiment was initiated on a commercial farm in eastern Massachusetts to ascertain more information about short-term postharvest treatments. This experiment was performed on three dates in the fall of 1999, which served as replications. There were three main effects: cilantro harvested the same day and stored in the sun, cilantro harvested the same day and stored in the shade, and cilantro harvested on previous day and stored in the shade. For each main effect there were six sub-effects for cilantro storage: roots intact, roots removed, roots intact and plants in sealed plastic bag, roots removed and plants in sealed plastic bag, roots intact and plants in water, roots removed and plants in water. Cilantro bunches were given a visual quality number every hour from 10:30 am to 4:30 pm on each date. No difference in visual quality was observed between cilantro with roots intact compared to cilantro with roots removed. Cilantro stored in the direct sun had a lower visual quality index than cilantro stored in the shade. Cilantro stored in water or in a sealed plastic bag and kept in the shade showed little decrease in visual quality after 7 hours on the day of harvest. The results of these experiments will help farmers in Massachusetts to produce and market cilantro to meet the growing demands for this product.

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Victor A Khan, C. Stevens, T. Mafolo, C. Bonsi, J.Y. Lu, E.G. Rhoden, M. A. Wilson, M. K. Kabwe, and Y. Adeyeye

TU-82-155 and `Georgia-Jet' early maturing. `Carver II'. TU-1892 and `Rojo-Blanco' late maturing sweepotato cultivars were evaluated in the field for: leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate, foliage crop growth rate (FCGR), storage roots crop growth rate (RCGR) and alpha a (the mean relative growth rate in dry wt to the mean relative growth rate in leaf area over a time interval) or the partitioning of assimilates. A split plot design was used and plants were sampled at 6, 8, 11 and 16 wk after transplanting. The results from study showed that LAI reached maximum development 8 and 12 wk after transplanting for early and late maturing cultivars, respectively. All cultivars irrespective to maturity groups showed a reduction in net assimilation rate 6 wk after transplanting while FCGR for early maturing cultivars gradually declined 6 wk after transplanting and varied among late maturing cultivars. `Carver II' showed increases in FCGR up to 11 wk after transplanting then rapidly declined while `Rojo-Blanco' and TU-1892 began to decline 8 and 6 wk after transplanting, respectively. RCGR showed rapid increases (100 g.m /area/week) and (150 g/m /area/week) for early and late maturing cultivars beginning 6 wk after transplanting and this increase continued until the 12th and 8 th wk after transplanting for early and late maturing cultivars, respectively. Cultivars from both maturity groups began to produce surplus assimilates (Alpha a) 6 wk after transplanting. which coincided with the rapid increases in RCGR at the same time. Thus indicating that storage root enlargement begins after the plant had accumulated a surplus of assimilates.

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Victor A. Kahn, C. Stevens, T. Mafolo, C. Bonsi, J.Y. Lu, E.G. Rhoden, M.A. Wilson, M.J.E. Brown, K. Kabwe, and Y. Adeyeye

TU-82-155 and `Georgia-Jet' early maturing. `Carver II', TU-1892 and `Rojo-Blanco' late maturing sweetpotato, cultivars were evaluated in the field for 0.20 and 40% vine removal (VR) at 8 wk after transplanting. Parameters measured were: leaf area index (LAI) recovery, net assimilation rate, foliage crop growth rate (FCGR), storage roots crop growth rate (RCGR). alpha a (the mean relative growth rate in dry wt to the mean relative growth rate in leaf area over a time interval) or the partitioning of assimilates, total and marketable yield. A split. splitplot design was used and plants were sampled at 3 and 8 wk following VR. Except for TU-82-155 all cultivars showed significant LAI recovery above the control at 3 and 8 wk after vine removal when 20% of the vines were removed while at the 40% VR, only 'Georgia-Jet'. TU-1892 and 'Carver II' showed significant increases in LAI for the same periods. Net assimilation rate showed significant interactions while FCGR was not significantly affected by either 20 or 40 VR compared to the control at 3 or 8 wk after VR. RCGR was significantly affected by both levels of VR at 3 and 8 wk after VR and surplus assimilates (alpha a) showed significant interactions between cultivars and % VR. Told yield declined for all cultivars irrespective to maturity groups with the sharpest decrease being at the 20% VR. All cultivars except TU-82-155 showed a decrease in marketable yield, the increase in marketable yield of TU-82-155 was due to a lower non-marketable yield.

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Jonathan R. Schultheis, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Herbert H. Bryan

Early plant growth, root quality, and yield from sweetpotato plants obtained from zygotic seed, somatic embryos, or cloned from stock plants (through micropropagation, rooted node explants, or nonrooted terminal vine cuttings) were compared in field plantings established in 1986, 1987, and 1988 in Gainesville and/or Homestead, Fla. At planting, transplants derived from somatic embryos had more nodes than the other propagules, while vine length per plant was greatest with nonrooted vine cuttings obtained from stock plants. The number of nodes (up to 253%) and vine growth (up to 517%) were greater when plants were derived from stock plants and zygotic embryos than from somatic embryos 4 weeks (1987) and 6 weeks (1988) after planting. Vegetative growth, larger-sized storage roots (>6 cm in diameter), and total yields (all root grades combined) were consistently reduced when plants were derived from somatic embryos compared with propagules of stock plant origin. Plants obtained from somatic embryos required more time for roots to bulk or size than the other propagule types. Root yield from plantlets derived from somatic embryos showed a 14-fold increase when harvest was delayed at least 53 more days. Root weight, regardless of harvest date, was greater when plants were derived from stock plants rather than from somatic embryos, while in most cases plants derived from somatic embryos yielded a greater number of roots than from stock plants. Plants obtained through somatic embryony and harvested at a later date typically had yields exceed 1.8 kg per plant. Morphology of plants obtained from somatic embryos was uniform and identical to plants derived from stock plants.

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Ajmer S. Bhagsari and Doyle A. Ashley

Field experiments with 15 sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)] genotypes were conducted to study the physiological basis of yield in 1981 and 1982. The leaf area index differed significantly among the sweet potato genotypes during early and late phases of growth, hut showed an inconsistent relationship with yield. Single leaf net photosynthesis ranged from 0.74 to 1.12 mg CO2/m' per sec. Canopy photosynthesis for sweet potato genotypes differed significantly in 1981, but not in 1982. It ranged from 0.81 to 1.16 mg CO2/m2 per sec in Aug. 1981. and from 0.63 to 0.88 mg CO2/m2 per sec in 1982. Four hours after “C-labeling, 14C-assimilate translocation from the treated leaf ranged from 21% to 46%, but did not differ significantly among the genotypes. At final harvest, harvest index [HI, defined as (storage root yield/total biological yield) × 100] of the genotypes varied from 43% to 77% and 31% to 75% for 1981 and 1982, respectively. Canopy photosynthesis during September was significantly correlated with storage root dry matter yield (r = 0.54*) in 1981 and with phytomass (above-ground biomass plus storage roots) (r = 0.60*) in 1982. Both phytomass and HI were significantly correlated with storage root matter yield. Canopy photosynthetic evaluation of sweet potato germplasm may be-more relevant when the storage root sinks are at an advanced stage of development. Our study suggests that yield is poorly predicted by Pn, particularly when the genotypes have different leaf sizes.

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon

the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in carrot storage roots. Interestingly, preliminary evidence of carotenoid gene expression in non-pigmented carrot root by reverse transcriptase PCR ( Just, 2004 ) provided the first evidence that all genes in

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P.P. David, A.A. Trotman, D.G. Mortley, D. Douglas, and J. Seminara

A study was initiated in the greenhouse to examine the effects of five \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} ratios on sweetpotato growth. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15-cm length, planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2-m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half-strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2:4 N:K ratio. \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} ratios investigated were 100:0, 0:100, 40:60, 60:40, and a control that consisted of a modified half-Hoagland solution with an N:K ratio of 1:2:4 and an \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} of 1:7. Treatments were initiated 30 days after planting (DAP). Sequential plant harvest began 30 DAP and continued at 30-day intervals until final harvest at 150 DAP. Results showed a linear increase in fresh storage root fresh weight until 90 DAP for all treatments. However, from 60 DAP until the end of the growing season, plants grown in a 100% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} solution consistently produced significantly less storage roots than in all other treatments. While all other treatments showed a decrease in storage root fresh weight after 90 DAP, plants grown in 100% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} and the control solution continued to increase linearly in storage root production. Storage root dry weight throughout the growing season followed similar trends to that of storage root fresh weight. Data suggest that a nutrient solution containing NO 3as its sole nitrogen source may be adequate for sweetpotato growth. This would make it possible for utilizing a one-way pH control method for nutrient solution.

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Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, and Arthur Q. Villordon

. Storage roots are elliptical without lobing and consistent in shape. Skin is light rose [10R (red) 6/4] and similar to ‘Beauregard’ clones (B-14 and B-63) (< http

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Mahmoud Panjtandoust and David J. Wolyn

sampling dates, 35 crowns from each subplot were dug and cleaned of soil. Ten of the 35 crowns were separated into rhizomes and storage roots and stored at 4 °C until further processing. Rhizomes and storage roots from five plants were lyophilized and used

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Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Arthur Q. Villordon, and C. Scott Stoddard

(purple) (4/6)]. Stigmata appear purple [7.5 R (red) P (purple) (8/6)]. The five stamens are inferior to stigmata and attached to the ovary. Storage roots are round-elliptical without lobing and consistent in shape. The skin is copper [5 Y (yellow) R (red