Lime-sulfur plus oil, for many years used as a tree fruit fungicide, was first introduced in New York state in 1905 for apple scab control (4). Cordley promoted its use for apple scab control in Oregon (1). It was later adopted as a means of combating pear scab, after Kienholz and Childs (2) demonstrated that overwintering twig lesions of Venturia pyrina Aderh. could be “burned out” by applying lime-sulfur during the delayed dormant state of bud development. They indicated that “lime-sulfur sprays could not be used with safety on Anjou pears in this locality after the bud scales had dropped.” However, they did not indicate the exact nature of the problem with lime-sulfur on this variety. Later they stated “previous evidence had indicated that delayed dormant sprays had no adverse effect upon fruit set” (3). They also showed that wettable sulfur adversely affected fruit production when applied during the growing season. The present study was designed to determine whether or not lime-sulfur plus oil had an effect on fruit set when applied as a spray during the early stages of bud development in D’Anjou pear.
Saudi Arabia is known for arid character and its total unsuitability for any agricultural exploitation. However; it is- now proving otherwise with the application of modern agrotechnology resulting in large scale production of many crops successfully. Considering the international growing demand of essential oils, need of agrocommunities for new crops, advantages of local warm climate and availability of generous government funding system, essential oil production offers immense potential in Saudi Arabia. This paper intends to describe the prospects of raising Pelargonium graveolens, Mentha arvensis, Artemesia pallens, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Ocimum basilicum, Eucalyptus citriodora, Rosemarinus officinalis, Coriandrum sativum, Anethum graveolens, Jasminum grandiflorum and Pogostemon patchouli successfully at various ecosystems and to establish new agroindustries based on essential oils around the Kingdom.
Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) was grown under growth room conditions with two photoperiodic treatments, short day and long day. Each treatment received a total of 13 hours light per 24 hour cycle, either continuously (13H) or as an interrupted night treatment (131) with 1 hour of light in the middle of the dark period. In addition to the previously reported changes in dry matter yield of herb, oil yield, growth habit and flowering, the photoperiodic treatments strongly influenced the proportions of several individual monoterpenes in peppermint. The long day treatment resulted in reduced levels of menthofuran, pulegone, menthyl acetate and limonene as well as increased levels of menthone, menthol, neo menthol acetate (+ unknown), trans-sabenine hydrate, cineole and β pinene + sabenine.
Genetic differences were observed in levels of aflatoxin production following controlled inoculations of California almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. P. amygdalus, Batsch.; P. communis (L.) Arcangeli, non Huds.]. Genetic variation was also observed in kernel oil composition, and in susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus Speare as indicated by rate of mold expansion on the surface of cut kernels. Several almond lines resulting from the introgression of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm had very low aflatoxin levels relative to commercial cultivars tested. Peach-derived almond breeding lines and cultivars also produced some of the highest oil quality as determined by the proportion of oleic acid, and by the oleic to linoleic acid balance. The proportion of linoleic acid to total oil ranged from 16% to almost 30%. No correlations were detected between aflatoxin production in inoculated almond kernels and either kernel oil composition or mold growth rate on injured kernel tissue.
`Legacy' southern highbush blueberry plants at the Middle Tennessee Research and Education Center were sprayed on 22 Feb. 2005 with 0%, 6%, 9%, or 12% soybean oil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with five replications. Flower bud abortion was evaluated by sampling 25 flower buds/plant on 21 Mar., dissecting, and visually examining buds for browning of ovaries. Flower bud phonology was rated periodically until first bloom and then percentage of open bloom was rated every 2 to 3 days. Fruit were harvested for yield and 50-berry samples taken weekly for the first 4 weeks to determine berry size. Sprays of 6%, 9%, and 12% soybean oil delayed the 50% open bloom date of `Legacy' by 2, 4, and 9 days, respectively, but also caused 9%, 35% and 87% mortality of flower buds. `Legacy' bushes sprayed with 0%, 6%, 9% and 12% soybean yielded 11.6, 13.7, and 10.3, and 4.5 lb/bush, respectively. Berry size was increased by 14% to 23% by oil sprays. In a second experiment, `Climax' blueberries in a commercial planting in Spring City, Tenn., were sprayed on 4 Mar. with water, 5% TNsoy14 (96% soybean oil, a.i.), 500 ppm abscisic acid (ABA) (Valent BioSciences Corp., Long Grove, Ill.), or the combination of oil and ABA (seven replications). Flower bud development and bloom were rated as previously described. Spraying 5% TNsoy14 or 500 ppm ABA delayed the 50% open bloom date by 1 day and the combination of the two delayed bloom by an additional day. On 5 Apr., `Climax' bushes sprayed with 5% TNsoy14, 500 ppm ABA, and 5% TNsoy14 plus 500 ppm ABA had 49%, 41%, and 20% open bloom compared to 70% open bloom on control plants. The 5% oil, 500 ppm ABA, and the oil plus ABA treatments did not significantly affect crop load or berry size.
Vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) was applied to `Gala' and `Fuji' apple (Malus ×domestica) trees after harvest to hasten defoliation and reduce apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). Applied at 2%, 4%, or 6%, VOE applied to whole trees in the fall induced leaf drop, with the highest concentration causing the most defoliation. At the same concentration, VOE applied in early, mid, or late October had similar effects on leaf drop. VOE treatment reduced respiration and stimulated ethylene production in shoot tissue within 24 hours of application. None of the treatments affected tree hardiness during the winter, or shoot growth the following spring. Return bloom density was unaffected; however, VOE tended to delay anthesis by 2 to 5 days. Under controlled conditions, `Gala' and `Fuji' trees inoculated with scab spores developed 48% and 65% scab, respectively. VOE-induced defoliation reduced scab by 50% to 65%. VOE-induced defoliation plus manual leaf removal from the orchard floor, or VOE-induced defoliation in late fall (15 Oct.-15 Nov.) plus application of 5% lime sulfur in early spring, controlled scab to <5% on both leaves and fruit. Neither lime sulfur nor urea applied in late fall at 2% induced defoliation or controlled scab. VOE at 4% plus 2% lime sulfur and/or 2% urea applied in late fall, however, defoliated `Gala' trees effectively and controlled scab on fruit to <7% the following spring. In the `Fuji' planting, the combination of 4% VOE plus 2% lime sulfur and 2% urea reduced scab on fruit from 21% in controls to 0%.
Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to rate the efficacy and longevity of four pesticide treatments against corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) larvae (CEW) in sweet corn (Zea mays). The four treatments used were 1) corn oil, 2) Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Bt), 3) oil + Bt, and 4) an untreated plot. All treatments were applied on silk day 5. Silk day 1 was the first day that more than 50% of the ears had 2.5 cm (1 inch) or more silks emerging from the husk using a hand-held pump applicator. Two first-instar CEW larvae were placed directly into silk channel of selected ears on 6 different days (days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 after first silk). The same six ears were then harvested 4 days later. Untreated ears had more live CEW and higher levels of feeding damage than the other three treatments ears for all harvest days in both years. The number of CEW found per ear was lower when Bt was included in the treatment. The use of corn oil gave the lowest damage ratings on almost all harvest days in both years. Treatments which contained oil had the highest number of marketable ears in both years, but also the highest percentage of underdeveloped kernels at the tip of the ear (6% to 9%). The oil and Bt treatments appeared to control CEW for at least 17 days, from silking through maturity. This treatment regime appears to be a promising alternative for growers to conventional pest management methods.
Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate soy-bean oil (SO) formulations for effects on powdery mildew (PM) and photosynthesis of dogwood trees. In the first experiment, one-year-old potted trees were sprayed with different formulations of 2% SO one day before exposure to PM. The formulations were emulsified with: teric/termul, lauriciden, lecithin, lecithin/MD 1, lecithin/MD 2, or Latron B-1956. A commercial formulation of Golden Natur'l was also used. The trees were arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications and eight treatments. In the second experiment, trees were sprayed 4 days after initial exposure to PM with the same treatments and arranged in a similar experimental design. The severity of PM infection was rated using the scale: 1 = 0%, 2 = 1% to 3%, 3 = 4% to 6%, 4 = 7% to 12%, 5 = 13% to 25%, 6 = 26% to 50%, 7 = 51% to 87%, and 8 = 88% to 100% of leaves visually displaying PM. The net photosynthetic (Pn) rates were measured using an infrared gas analyzer. In the first experiment, trees sprayed pre-inoculation with Golden Natur'l, lecithin, lecithin/MD 1, or Latron B-1956 formulation had less PM than control trees at 19 and 24 days after spraying (DAS). Pn of leaves sprayed with lecithin or Latron B-1956 formulations had 68% and 40% lower Pn rates, respectively, of the control leaves at one DAS. However, by 11 DAS, none of the SO formulations significantly affected Pn rates. Leaves of plants (expt. 2) sprayed with teric/termul, lauriciden, lecithin, and lecithin/MD 2 formulations had less PM than control trees at 28 DAS. All formulations reduced Pn rates at 6 DAS, with only Golden Natur'l treated leaves recovering to rates similar to control leaves by 15 DAS.
Spray adjuvants alone and combined with benomyl in single and multiple applications were tested for their influence on net photosynthesis (Pn) and development of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. on trees of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown in the greenhouse. Triton CS-7 increased and ×-100 and 70 second oil deceeased Pn. Nu Film 17, Triton B-1956, Regulaid and ×-77 when combined with benomyl had no influence on Pn. Addition of Biofilm, Nu Film 17 or 70 second oil to benomyl did not improve apple scab control. Three sprays of benomyl plus oil decreased Pn of fully expanded leaves, and 5 sprays decreased Pn of both expanded and newly expanding leaves with the latter showing the greatest reduction.
Considerable variability in susceptibility to two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) were observed for the strawberry cultivars used as parents and some of our promising selections. Large variation was observed for 9-octadecenal oil composition followed by linalool, C9H1002, decanal, β-cyclocitral, α-terpineol and (Z)-3-hexenol. The purpose of this research was to identify the relative susceptibility of selected strawberry lines to TSSM in relation to leaf essential oil composition. One objective of our breeding program is the early identification of susceptible lines and/or seedlings so that they can be eliminated prior to field trials.