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Ji Jhong Chen, Yuxiang Wang, Asmita Paudel and Youping Sun

accumulate to toxic levels in plant cells. Salinity tolerance varies among plant species, and selecting salt-tolerant plants and using them in landscapes can be sustainable. Salinity-tolerant plants are usually identified by manually irrigating plants with

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Oren McBee*, Timothy J. Smalley and David E. Radcliffe

This study determined the effect of soil amendments on plant available water (PAW) and readily available water (RAW). Intact soil cores were collected from a Cecil sandy clay loam soil landscape planting beds that had been amended annually for 5 years with 5 cm (25% by volume) of pine bark and broiler litter. Soil cores were also collected from a landscape bed that had been amended once in April 2000 with 5 cm (25% by volume) of Permatill (expanded slate). The results of this study indicated that amending soil with pine bark or broiler litter compost increased soil porosity, drainage, aeration and PAW. The volumetric RAW (cm3·cm-3) did not differ among treatments, but amending the soil with pine bark or broiler litter did increase the gravimetric RAW (g·g-1). Permatill increased drainage and aeration, but did not increase available water to plants.

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Jayesh Samtani, Gary Kling* and David Williams

Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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Chalita Sriladda, Heidi A. Kratsch, Steven R. Larson, Thomas A. Monaco, FenAnn Shen and Roger K. Kjelgren

Across the arid to semiarid U.S. Intermountain West (IMW) human populations increase but water supplies do not. Combined with cyclic drought, water shortages in IMW urban areas challenge managers to conserve water in irrigated urban landscapes

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David C. Zlesak, Randy Nelson, Derald Harp, Barbara Villarreal, Nick Howell, Jason Griffin, Gaye Hammond and Steve George

to meet the needs of consumers and growers ( Grygorczyk et al., 2013 ). Today’s consumers are less willing or able to spend time maintaining landscape beds than in years past and are also increasingly hesitant to grow pesticide-dependent landscape

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Gary L Wade and William A. Thomas

Cost estimating and job bidding are among the most complex and time-consuming tasks of landscape professionals. A software package was developed to make cost estimating more accurate and efficient. HORT LAND, computer cost estimator for landscape installation, was developed for IBM compatible PC's using SuperCalc 5 spreadsheet software. The user builds a series of data bases, including an items listing of materials and equipment utilized in his operation along with their associated cost. Then, he defines a series of generic tasks, such as planting a 1-gallon size plant, and refers to the previous items list and associated code numbers for the materials and equipment necessary to install the plant. Once these initial data bases are constructed and saved, the user inputs a plant list, including size and price, then instructs the computer to translate the appropriate data from the initial data bases to arrive at a detailed listing of costs. The program then computes direct job cost and bid price, including overhead and profit.

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Alan W. Meerow and Tomás Ayala-Silva

guarume ‘Miami Sunrise’, ‘Miami Sunset’, and ‘Tangelo’ are seedling selections from progeny grown from seed received in 2000. We believe that these fast-growing cultivars have great potential for use as landscape shrubs in USDA Hardiness Zones 9A–11

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Barbara Berge and Virginia I. Lohr

Studies have shown that many people prefer landscapes with vegetation over those devoid of plants. Few studies have looked specifically at adolescents or people of different ethnic heritages. Understanding preferences of such groups could help in designing horticultural education programs for these populations. In this study, high school students were asked to rate their preferences for a series of plant-dominated and urban-dominated slides.

Students generally gave higher ratings to the plant scenes than the urban scenes, indicating that they preferred the plant scenes. Their preferences were similar to what would be predicted from studies with adults. Hispanic students rated urban scenes and formal plant scenes, such as a garden with sculptured shrubs, significantly higher than did Anglo students. Hispanics rated informal scenes, such as a deciduous forest with no ground cover, significantly lower than did Anglo students.

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R.A. Mirabello, A.E. Einert, G.L. Klingaman and R.W. McNew

To examine the effects of mulching and fertilization on nutrient availability and plant growth in landscape beds, plots were established using four mulches (cottonseed hulls, cypress wood, pine bark, pine straw) and three fertilizer application methods (granular, liquid, time-release). Fertilizer was applied either below the mulch on the soil surface or over the mulch surface. Marigolds, Tagetes erecta L., were planted during the summer, followed by pansies, Viola×wittrockiana Gams, during the winter. Applied fertilizers, existing soil nutrients, and water-soluble nutrients from the new mulch provided an adequate supply of nutrients for marigold growth. Placement of fertilizer above or below the mulch did not affect marigold growth. Pansy growth was limited by depletion of soil N during the marigold season and by leaching of applied nutrients in the winter while plants were not actively growing. Mulch lowered soil temperatures and slowed pansy recovery in the spring. Pine straw allowed soil temperatures to rise earlier in the spring and improved pansy growth.

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J. David Williams, D. Joseph Eakes and Harry G. Ponder

Strong academic abilities and practical work experience are important to employers of horticulture graduates. In greatest demand are students with competent personal and leadership abilities and technical skills. Increased class size and increased university core curriculum requirements hinder our capacity to develop these added skills within our curriculum. However, through extracurricular offerings we can offer students ways to develop skills that are not fully expressed in the academic arena. Student interaction in the traditional horticulture club requires practicing interpersonal relation and often conflict resolution skills. Students learn to work as a team to accomplish goals that they have set for themselves as a group. The Associate¥ Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) Student Career Days experience offers a highly effective means for reinforcing cognitive skills gained in the classroom and laboratory, as well as supplementing academic learning opportunities with technical activities beyond those offered in the curriculum.