One-hundred-twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines of diverse origin were grown in three environments in 1986 and two environments in 1987. The purpose was to estimate broad-sense heritabilities of nine yield-related traits and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations among them. The traits and their heritabilities were seed yield (0.90), biomass (0.93), harvest index (0.92), days to maturity (0.96), days to flower (0.98), days of pod fill (0.94), biomass growth rate (biomass/days to maturity) (0.87), seed growth rate (seed yield/days of pod fill) (0.87), and economic growth rate (seed yield/days to maturity) (0.86). These high heritabilities were attributed to the broad genetic diversity and the comparatively small variances associated with the genotype × environment interactions. Genetic correlations of yield were: with biomass, 0.86; harvest index, 0.42; days to maturity, 0.40; days to flower, 0.33; days of pod fill, 0.24; biomass growth rate, 0.92; seed growth rate, 0.84; and the economic growth rate, 0.85. The concomitant phenotypic correlations were mostly equal to the genetic correlations for biomass and the three growth rates, but lower for the phonological traits (days to maturity, flower, and pod fill). Harvest index had the lowest correlations with yield. Correlations were also reported for the other 28 pairwise combinations among these nine traits. Indirect selection was explored with yield as the primary trait and the other eight as secondary traits. Estimates of relative selection efficiency (p) suggested that indirect selection was not a viable option for increasing common bean yields or identifying superior parents.
Heritability of resistance to gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm.) was measured in two diverse cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) populations [North Carolina elite slicer 1 (NCES1) and North Carolina wide base pickle (NCWBP)]. Heritability was estimated using parent-offspring regression and half-sib family analysis in North Carolina field tests during 1991 and 1992. NCES1 is a slicing cucumber population with a narrow genetic base, and NCWBP is a pickling cucumber population with a wide genetic base. Heritability estimates were low to moderate ranging from 0.12 to 0.49 for the gummy stem blight leaf rating and from -0.03 to 0.12 for stem rating. Estimates of gain from selection were at least two times larger for selection based on half-sib families than for mass selection for all traits in both populations. Approximately three to five cycles of selection would be required to improve the NCES1 population mean for gummy stem blight leaf resistance by one rating scale unit, and three to four cycles of selection would be required to improve the NCWBP population mean for gummy stem blight leaf resistance by one rating scale unit, based on half-sib family selection. One rating scale unit decrease is equivalent to an 11% reduction in susceptibility. Gain would be slower if selecting for stem, or leaf and stem resistance. A moderate amount of additive genetic variation exists in both populations for gummy stem blight leaf resistance, but estimates for additive genetic variation for stem resistance indicate little to no additive genetic variation. Development of populations specifically for greater initial resistance and greater additive variance than found in these populations should aid in selection for resistance.
Cauliflower PI 183214 (Brassica oleracea L. (Botrytis group) produced a persistent pure white curd even when fully exposed to the sun. The inheritance of white curd is controlled by 2-3 genes with a narrow sense heritability of 33-38%. Visual color selection was correlated (r=.79) with Hunter Colorimeter readings. PI 183214 has a light weight curd which is not linked to persistent white color. PI 183214 is also free of riciness, leaf-in-curd, and bracting which are closely linked to the standard non-persistent white curd.
A detached-leaf test was used to screen a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm collection for antibiosis to the pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis Stoll.). Data were collected on 1160 lines planted in the field in 1981. The 36 most resistant and 36 most susceptible lines were retested with improved methods, reducing the number of lines to 8 and finally to 6 based on leaf damage by pickleworm larvae. Selections were made within those lines to stabilize the resistant or susceptible reaction of each line in our test. In a final test, no significant differences were found among the selections, which included the most resistant and most susceptible lines identified in all studies. A heritability study was run on a population produced by intercrossing the 5 most resistant and 3 most susceptible lines identified in the initial field screening for 3 generations. Parent-offspring regression was used to estimate a narrow-sense heri-tablity of 0.03. Thus, there was little or no genetic variation in cucumber for antibiosis to pickleworm larvae, and other methods of control should be used.
Prostrate growth habit (PGH) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) lines derived from breeding material developed at the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Beaverlodge, Alberta, was the subject of a quantitative inheritance study. Plants with PGH have an increased lateral branch angle, relative to upright plants, and crown-set fruit supported above the soil surface making hand harvest easier. Genetic parameters were estimated in two families (20G and 53G), each containing PGH and upright-habit parental lines, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. Field-grown plants were subjectively rated twice during the growing season. Broad-sense heritability of PGH in family 20G was estimated to be 0.65 and 0.71 for ratings of plant growth habit 6 and 9 weeks after transplanting, respectively, and 0.71 and 0.68 for those of family 53G. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated to be 0.83 and 1.05 for the two ratings in the 20G family and 0.77 and 0.78 in the 53G family. F1 and F2 means were not different from mid-parent values. The genetic variance was entirely additive and expression was influenced by the environment. The data did not support the hypothesis that PGH was controlled by a single gene.
Eight clones of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L. were evaluated for resistance to the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) f. sp. batatas (Wr.) Snydor & Hanson and their reactions varied from extremely susceptible to extremely resistant. The 8 clones were used as parents in a modified diallel crossing design which generated 24 families each consisting of 10 full-sib clones. These 240 clones were evaluated for Fusarium wilt resistance in a randomized complete block design. They showed a gradation of resistance similar to the parents which is consistent with the theory of a quantitative mode of inheritance for this character. Diallel analysis of the 24 families revealed significant general and specific combining ability effects. Additive variance accounted for 87% of the total genetic variance while dominance variance accounted for only 13%. Broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities estimated for individuals and full-sib families from the diallel analysis were consistently greater than 70%. Narrow-sense heritability of individuals using the parent-offspring regression method was 50%. Results indicate that gains in Fusarium wilt resistance should be rapid and substantial in sweet potatoes.
Genetic variation in chilling requirement was investigated over three growth periods using clonal progenies of six apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] families derived from crosses of high and low chill requiring cultivars. Two quantitative measurements related to chilling requirement, viz., the time of initial budbreak (vegetative and reproductive) and the number of breaking buds over a specified time interval, were used as evaluation criteria. Genetic and environmental variances of the traits are presented as intra-class correlation coefficients for clones within and between families. For budbreak time, reproductive and vegetative, broad-sense heritability averaged around 75% and 69% respectively, indicating a high degree of genetic determination in this material. For budbreak number, moderate to low genetic determination was found with broad-sense heritabilities around 30%. Estimates of genetic components of variance between families were generally very low in comparison to the variance within families and predict potentially favorable responses to truncation selection on the traits within these progeny groups. Analysis of the data showed that distribution of budbreak time is typical of quantitative traits with means distributed closely around midparent values. Skewed distributions towards low budbreak number were obtained in varying degrees in all families.
We determined variance components and narrow-sense heritability estimates for total and individual anthocyanin (ACY) content and antioxidant activity (AA) in fruit from 411 genotypes in a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) factorial mating design based on 42 full-sib families derived from seven female and six male parents, harvested in 2002 and 2003. Within half-sib family total ACY content ranged from ≈1-60+ mg/100 g fruit in both seasons. The four major ACYs quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography also showed wide ranges each year. Female and male parent contributions to variation in total and individual ACYs were significant (P ≤ 0.001) in combined year analysis, and together accounted for 29% to 48% of the total variation. A substantial proportion of the female contribution was attributed to the use of a pigment-deficient R. parvifolius L. × R. idaeus hybrid derivative as a female parent. Female × male interaction was nonsignificant and contributed negligibly to total variance. Year effects accounted for <2.5% of variation in ACYs and were only marginally significant. Year interactions were negligible. Within family variation (among plots and within plot) accounted for ≈50% of the variation in total ACY and 62% to 69% of the variation in individual ACYs. Combined year narrow-sense heritability estimates were high (h 2 = 0.54-0.90 for individual ACYs, 1.00 for total ACY) among all factorial genotypes, but moderate when the progeny of the R. parvifolius derivative were excluded (h 2 = 0.45-0.78 for individual ACYs, 0.74 for total ACY). The latter estimates are applicable to breeding programs in which pigment-deficient genotypes are rarely or never used in breeding. Parental main effects were significant for AA, together accounting for 19% of total variance; female × male interaction was nonsignificant. Year effects were marginally significant and year interactions nonsignificant; together these sources of variation contributed <2% of total variation in AA. The majority of AA variation was found within- and among-plots within family. The phenotypic correlation between AA and total ACY was r = 0.53, and ranged from r = 0.21-0.46 between AA and individual ACYs; genetic correlations between AA and the ACYs were similar to the phenotypic correlations, suggesting predominantly additive genetic effects accounted for the phenotypic correlations. Linear modelling for AA based on individual ACYs and their interactions explained ≈0.53 of AA variation, substantially less than that explained by total phenolic content (R 2 = 0.88). Our results show substantial variation and moderate to high narrow-sense heritability estimates for red raspberry ACYs, but ACY content and profile information are ineffective proxies and predictors for AA in red raspberry fruit.
Variance components for 3 fruit yield and 5 fruit quality traits in 3 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) populations were estimated using a North Carolina Design I analysis. Three populations were studied (elite, medium base, and wide base), having been formed by intercrossing lines to produce 3 levels of genetic diversity. Families were evaluated in 1.5 × 1.5 m plots using once-over harvest at the stage of 15% oversized fruits. Heritabilities based on full-sib family selection for fruit yield ranged from 0.03 to 0.25, and for the fruit quality traits 0.00 to 0.30. The wide base population would be best for long-term selection for the traits studied, because it had the highest predicted means for all traits except percentage of culls, fruit shape, and overall performance after 15 cycles of full-sib family selection.
The intervals, in days, between 10%, 50%, and 90% ripened fruit, as well as crop load, were estimated over 2 years in progenies from a partial diallel cross among 17 blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., V. angustifolium Ait., and V. corymbosum × V. angustifolium hybrids) parents. General combining ability (GCA) mean squares were highly significant for all ripening intervals and for crop load, while specific combining ability mean squares were nonsignificant, indicating a large proportion of additive genetic variance. Narrow-sense heritability estimates were about 0.50 for the three ripening intervals (10–50%, 50–90%, and 10–90%). Several parents had large positive GCA effects, indicating their contribution to a long ripening interval. Most progenies with large crop loads required >15 days between 10% and 90% ripened fruit. Despite the consistently positive relationship between ripening interval length and crop load, variation among families and the potential for within-family segregation suggest the possibility of obtaining genotypes with high yield potential and improved uniform ripening.