canopy displaying chlorosis, necrosis (in the form of V-shaped lesions), and wilting. Stem samples were assayed for Verticillium spp. using the techniques outlined by Buller et al. (2013) . Following incubation, samples were analyzed for microsclerotia
Roses are adapted for growth and production on acid to slightly acid soil. When grown on alkaline soil sites, without extensive soil modification and acid forming and/or iron chelate fertilization, growth is reduced and severe iron chlorosis is prevalent. This study screened 24 Rosa rootstock species and selections on one acid and two alkaline soil sites for 2 consecutive years. Plants were observed for chlorosis, chlorophyll content, fresh and dry weight production and overall quality. A final reciprocal grafting study using susceptible and tolerant selections was conducted to assure the scion could realize the adaptability of the rootstock. Overall, the following five selections consistently exhibited greater growth and decreased chlorosis on the alkaline sites: R. odorata, R. canina, R. manetii, R. sp. “Mexican”, R. fortuniana, and R. multiflora selection K-l. All other R. multiflora selections performed poorly. On the acid soil site, all rootstocks grew well. When susceptible selections were budded onto tolerant rootstocks, the scions exhibited a higher degree of tolerance. Tolerant selections budded onto susceptible rootstocks exhibited increased chlorosis and decreased growth.
Ficus benjamina L. and Dracaena marginata Lam. were grown in a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution containing either 0, 0.22 or 5.52 mg Fe3+/liter (HEEDTA or EDTA). F. benjamina grew well at all Fe levels and showed mild chlorosis only at 0 mg Fe/liter. For D. marginata, growth decreased and chlorosis increased as solution Fe level decreased. F. benjamina exhibited a high capacity for Fe3+ reduction, which increased as Fe level decreased, reaching a maximum below 0.06 mg·liter-1 D. marginata exhibited a low capacity for Fe3+ reduction, which was slightly enhanced at 0.1 to 0.15 mg·liter-1. In both species, reduction occurred in the presence of roots, with minimal reduction in their absence. This result indicates that Fe3+ is reduced at the root surface and not by reductants released into the solution. F. benjamina increasingly lowered pH as solution Fe decreased, and always lowered pH more than D. marginata at all Fe levels. Total and extractable Fe concentration of leaves did not correlate well with chlorosis, whereas total Fe content per plant correlated highly with chlorosis. Chemical names used: N-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine-triacetic acid (HEEDTA), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).
This research was conducted to compare an in vitro leaf disk technique with greenhouse and field evaluations for screening large populations of grape (Vitis sp.) seedlings for downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Berl. & de Toni) resistance. Seedlings produced by crossing resistant × resistant, resistant × susceptible, and susceptible × susceptible parents were rated for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis. Leaf disk sporulation ratings at the first and second rating were highly correlated with the second sporulation rating in the field. Necrosis ratings from the leaf disk evaluations were significantly correlated with field necrosis ratings, but leaf disk chlorosis ratings were not correlated with field ratings. Some correlations, including evaluations of chlorosis, between the greenhouse and field ratings were highly significant. Seedling ratings of 0 or 1 for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis in the leaf disk assay agreed with field evaluations 85.6% of the time vs. 80.3% agreement between greenhouse and field ratings. Sporulation was the parameter most highly correlated between leaf disk or greenhouse and field evaluation of resistance. The leaf disk procedure appeared to be a good predictor of field resistance, and is more practical than the greenhouse method for screening large populations.
Six cultivars of potted rose (Rosa ×hybrida L.) plants were evaluated for shipping stress-induced leaf chlorosis during holding at 8, 16, or 28C for 2, 4, or 6 days. `Meijikatar' showed more leaf chlorosis than the similar `Meirutral' at the higher simulated shipping temperatures and longer durations. Plants of `Meijikatar' were treated before simulated shipping with BA, TZ, or Promalin at 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg cytokinin/liter each, then paper-sleeved and stored in the dark in fiberboard boxes at 16C for 5 days. Plant quality 5 days after removal from storage was better with BA at 50 or 100 than at 0 mg·liter–1. All cytokinin-treated plants showed less leaf chlorosis than controls. Benzyladenine at 50 or 100 mg·liter–1 reduced leaf chlorosis when compared to all TZ treatments. There were no differences among treatments in the number of etiolated shoots per plant. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA); trans-zeatin (TZ); gibberellic acid (GA4+7) + BA (Promalin).
The development of postproduction foliar chlorosis is one of the critical problems that remains unsolved in Easter lily production. Plants at the white puffy stage were sprayed with 500 mg gibberellic acid (GA3)/liter, 500 mg benzyladenine (BA)/liter, 500 mg each GA3 and BA/liter, 500 mg ProGibb (containing 500 mg GA3/liter)/liter, and 1000 mg Promalin (containing 500 mg GA4 + GA7/liter and 500 mg BA/liter)/liter, and a water control. Development of foliar chlorosis was evaluated in a simulated interior environment at a temperature of 22.6 ± 0.2C and illuminated 12 h·d–1 with 11.2 ± 0.1 mmol·m–2·s–1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps. Results demonstrated that GA3, BA, ProGibb, and Promalin are effective in delaying the development of foliar chlorosis of cold-stored plants. Promalin was the most effective. Concentrations of Promalin as low as 50 mg· liter–1 were effective. Treatments had no effect on the development and the longevity of flower buds. This study thus suggests that application of Promalin to Easter lily plants prior to marketing is a viable solution to preventing postproduction development of foliar chlorosis.
Alkaline soils in Nebraska reduce crop yields and lower aesthetic values of ornamentals and turf (2). Chlorosis associated with alkaline soils occurs in many plants and influences plant growth and development by reducing photosynthetic efficiency (1). Data for turfgrass species and cultivar growth at high pH would be useful.
Unrooted cuttings of ‘Janet Craig’ Dracaena were propagated in peat amended with various levels and combinations of dolomite, calcium carbonate and superphosphate. Plant damage expressed as leaf chlorosis and necrosis was increased by additions of F contained in the superphosphate. Damage was reduced by dolomite and calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate the most effective. Increased tissue F is related to increased leaf damage.
(except plant height) drastically elevated; thus, treating lettuce with chitin can mitigate the effects of water stress. Water stress had a harmful effect during RDI, the degree of chlorosis being related to a reduction in LA values. Chitin application
Several pulse solutions were tested for their effectiveness in preventing leaf senescence on four cut oriental lily cultivars (Lilium sp. `Acapulco', `Kissproof', `Noblesse' and `Star Gazer'). Stems were pulsed 24 hours after harvest for 1 hour, stored in boxes in the dark for 5 days at 3 °C (37.4 °F) then evaluated in postharvest conditions. A new commercial product called Chrysal BVB, a proprietary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal (Miami) containing cytokinine and gibberellic acids, was the most effective product tested. Chrysal BVB [1 mL·L–1 (0.1%)] prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission on `Acapulco' and `Noblesse' and significantly reduced it by 82% on `Star Gazer' and by 69% on `Kissproof'. Stems pulsed in Fascination, a commercial mixture containing 1.8% gibberellins (GA4+7) and 1.8% benzyladenine [5.4 mg·L–1 (ppm) each], virtually prevented leaf chlorosis on `Noblesse', reduced it by 50% or more on `Acapulco' and `Star Gazer', and significantly delayed it 8 days on `Kissproof'. A 10 μm (2 ppm) pulse in thidiazuron, a substituted phenylurea with cytokinin-like properties, delayed leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer' but to a lesser extent compared to BVB and Fascination. Chrysal SVB, a propri-etary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal containing gibberellic acid, had no effect on reducing leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer'. None of the pulse solutions had adverse effects on bud opening, flower quality or vase life. Maintaining stems in a bulb flower preservative significantly reduced leaf chlorosis and abscission in all cultivars when stems were not pretreated with a pulse solution or when a pulse solution was ineffective.