To investigate phytonutrient accumulation in black raspberries, fruits of `Jewel' and `MacBlack' were harvested at stages from the onset of color development (S1) to ripe fruit (S7). S1–S7 samples were characterized for color reflectance and then frozen at –28 °C within an hour of harvest. Additional ripe fruit were maintained at 20 °C for 3 days to overripen (S8) before freezing. After storage, samples were analyzed for dry weight (DW), total soluble solids (TSS), fructose (FRU), glucose (GLU), and organic acid (ORG) contents; total phenolic (PHE) and anthocyanin (ACY) contents; individual cyanidin glycoside levels (ICG); and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and ABTS) by standard methodology. `Jewel' and `MacBlack' ripened similarly. Chroma values and DW percentage decreased while TSS levels, sugar contents (FRU+GLU), PHE, ACY, the ACY: PHE ratio, and ICG increased with progressive ripening stages (S1–S7). Values of PHE, ACY, and ICG were highly correlated (r < +0.95) with FRAP and ABTS values. ACY levels in S6 fruit were 18% to 23% less than those of S7; lower S6 ACY levels were associated with reduced antioxidant capacity in `MacBlack', but not `Jewel'. Overripened fruit (S8) exhibited increased DW (11% to 25%) and decreased sugar contents (16% to 17%), consistent with moisture and respiratory losses after harvest. After correction for these losses, S7 and S8 levels of PHE, ACY, FRAP, and ABTS were similar in `MacBlack'. However, as `Jewel' overripened, ACY levels and antioxidant activity increased 44% and 22% to 26%, respectively. Our data suggests that significant changes in the antioxidant behavior of black raspberries can occur during the periods surrounding peak ripeness.
Mustafa Ozgen, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Ann M. Chanon, Nithya Janakiraman, R. Neil Reese, A. Raymond Miller and Joseph C. Scheerens
R.E. McDonald, T.G. McCollum and E.A. Baldwin
Mature green `Sunbeam' tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), were treated in varying order with C2H4, 42°C water for 60 minutes, 38°C air for 48 hours, partial ripening for 48 hours at 20°C, or not treated, and then stored at 2°C for 14 days before ripening at 20°C. Heat treated fruit stored at 2°C and transferred to 20°C ripened normally while 63% of nonheated fruit decayed before reaching red ripe. More chilling injury (CI) developed when C2H4 was applied following heat treatment rather than before. There was more CI in fruit that were 42°C water treated compared with the 38°C air treatment. Less CI developed on fruit that were partially ripened for 2 days at 20°C before a 42°C water treatment rather than following it. At red ripe, nonchilled fruit were firmer than chilled heat treated fruit. Fruit treated in 42°C water were firmer when the heat treatment was applied before the C2H4 treatment rather than following it. Chlorophyll and lycopene content and internal quality characteristics of fruit were similar at the red ripe stage irrespective of C2H4 or heat treatment. Chilling and heat treatments reduced some of the 15 flavor volatiles analyzed. Volatile levels were lower in fruit treated with C2H4 before heat treatment compared with fruit treated with C2H4 following heat treatment. Prestorage heat treatments could allow for storage of mature green tomatoes at low temperatures with little loss in their ability to ripen normally.
E.K. Gubrium, D.G. Clark, H.J. Klee, T.A. Nell and J.E. Barrett
We are studying the horticultural performance of two model plant systems that carry a mutant gene that confers ethylene-insensitivity: Never Ripe tomatoes and petunia plants transformed with the mutant etr1-1 gene isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Having two model systems to compare side-by-side allows us to determine with greater certainty ethylene's role at different developmental stages. Presence of the mutant etr1-1 gene in transgenic petunias was determined using three techniques: PCR analysis, the seedling triple response assay (inhibition of stem elongation, radial swelling of stem and roots, and an exaggerated apical hook when grown in the dark and in the presence of ethylene), and the flower wilting response to pollination, which is known to be induced by ethylene. Flowers from ethylene-insensitive petunias took almost four times as long to wilt after pollination as wild-type plants. It is well known that fruit ripening in Never Ripe tomato is inhibited, and a similar delayed fruit ripening phenotype is observed in petunia plants transformed with etr1-1. In an effort to maintain ethylene-insensitive petunia plants by vegetative propagation, we observed that the rate of adventitious root formation was much lower with transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. In subsequent experiments on adventitious root formation in Never Ripe tomato, we observed the same result. Therefore, while ethylene-insensitive tomato and petunia plants appear phenotypically normal for many characters, other factors are altered by the presence of this mutation. The fact that these changes are present in two model systems helps to define the role of ethylene perception in plant growth and reproduction.
Martin P. N. Gent
Tomatoes were grown in spring and summer in Connecticut in greenhouses covered with a double layer of 4-mL clear polyethylene film. Some sections were covered with reflective aluminized shadecloth that provided 85%, 70%, or 50% transmittance of direct radiation, respectively. This shading was applied in mid-June, after fruit began to ripen, and remained for the rest of the summer. Fruit was picked through August. A similar experimental protocol was used in 2003 and 2004. The maximum shading only decreased daily integrated solar radiation to 69% of that without shade, as measured by PARsensors set at a 2-m height in each greenhouse. Shading reduced yield of ripe fruit from 16.6 and 13.1 kg·m-2, proportional to the measured decrease in radiation. Neither fruit size nor weight fraction of marketable fruit was affected by shading in 2004. Nutrient content was analyzed in tissues of ripe fruits, and uppermost expanded leaves harvested in early August. As shading decreased transmittance, it increased the concentration of most elements in leaves. Total N, P, and K concentrations followed this trend; however, Ca was not affected by shading. Fruit dry matter content declined slightly, from 5.9% to 5.7% of fresh weight, for plants grown with no shade or shade with 50% transmittance, respectively. However, there was no significant effect of shading on K, Ca, Mg, or on minor elements in fruit tissue, whether expressed on a fresh weight or dry weight basis. Thus, shading a greenhouse to improve fruit quality had no effect on the value of ripe tomatoes as a dietary source of mineral nutrients.
Lili Zhou, David A. Christopher and Robert E. Paull
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) source size and sink strength were modified by a single defoliation or continual defoliation and fruit thinning. Fruit set, development, weight, total sugar (sum of sucrose, fructose, and glucose), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS), and acid invertase (AI) enzyme activities in response to defoliation and fruit thinning were determined. The effects of defoliation and fruit thinning varied with weather conditions, plant growth conditions, and cultivar. Removal of 75% of the leaves significantly reduced new flower production and fruit set, and decreased ripe fruit total soluble solids (TSS), while 50% defoliation did not reduce new fruit set or ripe fruit TSS. When every third leaf from the oldest leaf was not removed, the number of new flowers was reduced by 47% more than when the same number of leaves was removed from the oldest to younger leaves. Continual removal of old leaves reduced new fruit set, fruit weight, and TSS in the 168 day experimental period. Fruit thinning increased new fruit set and ripe fruit TSS. Larger fruit size, faster fruit development, lower respiration rate, and higher sugar contents and AI activity were observed in immature (young) fruit when old fruit were removed. AI activity was reduced during early fruit development and increased again in mature fruit in plants subjected to defoliation, and suggested a role for AI in mature fruit sugar accumulation, while SS activity declined significantly in fruit 154 and 175 days after anthesis and in mature fruit when plants were subjected to continual defoliation. SPS activity was not affected significantly by defoliation or fruit thinning. Source-sink balance was critical for papaya fruit set, development, and sugar accumulation and each mature leaf was able to provide photoassimilate for about three fruit.
R.E. McDonald, T.G. McCollum and E.A. Baldwin
Mature-green `Sunbeam' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were treated in varying order with C2H4, 42 °C water for 1 hour, 38 °C air for 2days, held 2 days at 20 °C (partial ripening), or not treated and then stored at 2 °C (chilled) for 14 days before ripening at 20 °C. Heat-treated fruit stored at 2 °C and transferred to 20 °C ripened normally, while 63% of nonheated fruit decayed before reaching the red-ripe stage. Partially ripened fruit developed more chilling injury, were firmer, were lighter, and were less red in color than fruit not partially ripened. Lycopene content and internal quality characteristics of fruit were similar at the red-ripe stage irrespective of sequence of C2H4 exposure, heat treatment, or a partial ripening period. Of the 15 flavor volatiles analyzed, 10 were reduced by storage at 2 °C, Exposure to C2H4 before the air heat treatment reduced the levels of four volatiles, while C2H4 application either before or after the water heat treatment had no effect on flavor volatiles. Two volatiles were decreased and two were increased by partial vipening, Storage at 2 °C decreased the level of cholesterol and increased levels of campesterol and isofucosterol in the free sterol pool. Exposure to C2H4 before or following heat treatments, the method of heat treatment, and partial ripening had little effect on free sterols, steryl esters, steryl glycosides, or acylated steryl glycosides in the pericarp of red-ripe fruit. A shortor long-term heat treatment of mature-green tomatoes could permit storage at low temperatures with little loss in their ability to ripen normally, whereas partial ripening did not reduce chilling injury.
Maria Eloisa G. Quintana and Robert E. Paull
`Solo' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit removed at different points from a commercial packing house showed that skin injury due to mechanical damage increased as fruit moved through the handling system. The occurrence of “green islands” -areas of skin that remain green and sunken when the fruit was fully ripe-apparently were induced by mechanical injury. Skin injury was seen in fruit samples in contact with the sides of field bins, but not in fruit taken from the center of the bins. Bruise-free fruit at different stages of ripeness (5% to 50% yellow) were dropped from heights of 0 to 100 cm onto a smooth steel plate to simulate drops and injury incurred during commercial handling. No skin injury occurred, although riper fruit showed internal injury when dropped from higher than 75 cm. Fruit (10% to 15% yellow) dropped onto sandpaper from a height of 10 cm had skin injury symptoms similar to those seen on fruit from the commercial handling system. These results suggest that abrasion and puncture injury were more important than impact injury for papaya fruit. Heating fruit at 48C for ≈6 hours or until fruit core temperature (FCT) reached 47.5C aggravated the severity of skin injury. Delays in the application of heat treatment from dropping did not reduce the severity of skin injury significantly, except for fruit heated 24 hours after dropping. Waxing fruit alleviated the severity of skin injury, whether applied before or after the heat treatment. Skin injury to papaya was caused by abrasion and puncture damage-not impact-and increased during postharvest handling of the fruit. The injury was associated mainly with fruit hitting the walls of wooden bins-bin liners may reduce this injury.
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, Allan W. Stretch and Vickie Brewster
Thirty-three Vaccinium corymbosum selections and cultivars were artificially inoculated with spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the green fruit stage. Fruit was harvested when ripe and incubated under high-humidity conditions for 1 week, before evaluation. A wide range of susceptibility to anthracnose fruit-rot was found, ranging from 8% to 85%. Among the most-resistant cultivars were: `Elliott' (8%), `Murphy' (8.3%), `Stanley' (13%), and `Weymouth' (16.9%). Among the most-susceptible cultivars were: `Bluetta' (85%), `Spartan' (82.7%), `June' (69.9%), and `Northblue' (69.5%). Uninoculated checks had a maximum of 6% infection.
Sanliang Gu, Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Robert C. Cochran and David Garner
Fruit from 8 `Hayward' kiwifruit vineyards in central California were harvested at 2 week intervals after soluble solids content (SSC) reached 6% and subjected to 4 and 6 months of storage at 0°C in an ethylene free environment. Fruit characteristics at harvest and postharvest performance varied considerably among locations. Fruit stored for 6 months had the same fresh weight, less flesh firmness and higher SSC, than the 4 months storage. Later harvested fruit had greater fruit flesh firmness and higher SSC after storage. SSC after storage was predictable based on ripe soluble solids content (RSSC) at harvest. Summer pruning reduced while soil nitrogen application increased fruit SSC.
Jiwon Jeong and Donald J. Huber
Pre-ripe `Booth 7' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit, a cross of West Indian and Guatemalan strains, were treated with 0.9 μL·L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 hours at 20 °C. After storage for 18 days in air at 13 °C, at which time whole fruit firmness values averaged about 83 N, half of the 1-MCP-treated fruit were treated with 100 μL·L-1 ethylene for 12 hours and then transferred to 20 °C. 1-MCP delayed softening, and fruit treated with 1-MCP retained more green color than air-treated fruit when full ripe (firmness 10 to 15 N). 1-MCP affected the activities of pectinmethylesterase (EC 22.214.171.124), α-(EC 126.96.36.199) and β-galactosidases (EC 188.8.131.52), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC 184.108.40.206). The appearance of polygalacturonase (EC 220.127.116.11) activity was completely suppressed in 1-MCP-treated fruit for up to 24 days, at which time the firmness of 1-MCP-treated fruit had declined nearly 80% compared with initial values. The effect of exogenous ethylene applied to partially ripened 1-MCP-treated fruit differed for different ripening parameters. Ethylene applied to mid-ripe avocado exerted no effect on the on-going rate or final extent of softening of 1-MCP-treated fruit, even though polygalacturonase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase activities increased in response to ethylene. β-galactosidase decreased in 1-MCP-treated fruit in response to ethylene treatment. 1-MCP delayed the increase in solubility and depolymerization of water- and CDTA (1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid)-soluble polyuronides, likely due to reduced polygalacturonase activity. At the full-ripe stage, the levels of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose associated with the CDTA-soluble polyuronide fraction were similar among all treatments. In contrast, the galactose levels of water-soluble polyuronides declined 40% and 17% in control and 1-MCP treated fruit, respectively. Hemicellulose neutral sugar composition was unaffected by 1-MCP or ethylene treatment. The data indicate that the capacity of avocado fruit to recover from 1-MCP-mediated suppression of ripening can be only partially amended through short-term ethylene application and differs significantly for different ripening parameters.