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Danny L. Barney, Omar A. Lopez and Elizabeth King

at the University of Idaho to produce cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry cultivars for field cultivation and managed forest systems. Vegetative propagation, however, has been problematic. Minore et al. (1979) reported

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Zhenghui Tang, Honghui Lin, Lei Shi and Weilun Chen

In Vitro Plant Germplasm Collection, Type Culture Conservation Committee, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Plants were maintained by vegetative propagation in the greenhouse at 25 °C. Leaves were excised under the dissecting microscope to avoid taking

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Lorenzo León, Raúl de la Rosa, Diego Barranco and Luis Rallo

domestication and growing has been explained by empirical selection of individuals for greater fruit size and oil yield content within wild olive populations and subsequent vegetative propagation, about 2800 bc in the Middle East ( Baldoni et al., 2006 ). This

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Youping Sun, Donglin Zhang and John Smagula

for colder regions. Conventional seed germination and vegetative propagation are two major procedures for mass propagation. However, similar to other Ilex species, seed germination of inkberry is inefficient as a result of low germination rate, long

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Rajendra P. Maurya, Dion M. Lewis and Jeff St. A. Chandler

stimulation of root development and increases uniformity of rooting. This in turn results in the propagating of new plants in a shorter period of time and low cost. IBA is one of the most effective and widely used auxins in vegetative propagation ( Blazich

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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

Saintpaulia (family Gesneriaceae), commonly known as African Violet, is a popular houseplant as a result of its compact size, tolerance of shaded conditions, ease of vegetative propagation, and potential to flower year round. To date ≈20

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Benard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Bramwell Wanjala, Dong-Jin Kim, Robert A. Skilton, Agnes Alajo and Robert O.M. Mwanga

-incompatibility leading to chance seedlings in farmers' fields and vegetative propagation of the crop and directed selection in the crop for various uses such as human food, livestock feed, and poultry feed coupled with new introductions and mutations. High levels of

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Liang Zheng, Zibin Xiao and Weitang Song

Dianthus caryophyllus L., commonly known as carnation, is one of the most popular cut flowers; it ranks third after chrysanthemum and rose in the worldwide market ( Liu et al., 2018 ). Vegetative propagation by cutting is one of the main methods

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Alvine Ornella Tchouga, Vincent Deblauwe, Stephanie Astride Mouafi Djabou, Giovanni Forgione, Rachid Hanna and Nicolas Niemenak

heterozygosity. Vegetative propagation by leafy stem cutting is feasible, but the quantity of plant material available from a selected donor plant is limited and the cuttings maintain the plagiotropic growth of the lateral stem of the cutting ( Tsobeng et al

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Tracy S. Hawkins, Nathan M. Schiff, Emile S. Gardiner, Theodor Leininger, Margaret S. Devall, Dan Wilson, Paul Hamel, Deborah D. McCown and Kristina Connor

vegetative propagation techniques for the threatened African pencil cedar ( Juniperus procera Hoechst. ex Endl.) For. Ecol. Manage. 161 53 64 Noss, R.F. Laroe, E.T. III Scott, J.M. 1995 Endangered ecosystems