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A. Talaie and J. Seddigh

Research was conducted in the laboratory of Horticulture Dept. of Seeds and Plants Improvement Research Inst. in Karaj to review the possibility of canning soft and nectariferous `Mozafati' and `Karout' dates from Bam and Zahedan cities. According to the existing information, there are large amounts of postharvest spoilages on this fruit because of their storage in carton boxes or other packing materials and due to a large amount of nectar. Thus, there are physical and chemical changes particularly during ripening (date), and, as a result, there is always a severe effect on the quality of the product. It seems that canning of date under proper conditions could maintain the characteristics of the proposed variety and also the physical and chemical properties of the fruit for a longer time and it could be easily transported to all parts of the world. The samples for this experiment were collected in tamer stage because there are a lot of changes in the ripening stage of these varieties, which lead to severe fruit drop. The proposed samples were randomly collected from 10 date palms. The specifications and characteristics of the collected samples were recorded after the preliminary test procedures, washing, and disinfection. In this experiment a complete randomized design with four treatments were used. The experimented factors were variety and treatment. The experimented varieties were Mozafati and Karout and the proposed treatments were control tree–date syrup, sugar syrup, sugar beet molasses, and vacuum conditions. This experiment was repeated for four times for all treatments, and the best canning method was determined. The results indicate that vacuum conditions are the best canning method for Mozafati, while canning with sugar beet molasses is the best method for Karout.

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John E. Kaminski, Peter H. Dernoeden and Cale A. Bigelow

Natural organic fertilizers require microbial degradation for nitrogen (N) release, but their ability to promote rapid turfgrass establishment has not been well documented in newly constructed sand-based rootzones. This 2-year field study evaluated the influence of two general fertilizer and soil amendment programs for their effect on establishment and quality of three creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars—`Crenshaw', `Penn G-2', and `Providence'. Turf was grown on a 4 sand: 1 sphagnum peat (by volume) rootzone mixture. Four treatments consisting of surface-applied synthetic fertilizer (SF; mostly water-soluble N in 1999 and methylene urea thereafter); surface-applied hydrolyzed poultry meal (PM); preplant-incorporated granular humate (GH) with surface-applied SF; and preplant-incorporated PM with surface-applied PM. Turf cover data collected 42 days after seeding (DAS) showed that the rate of establishment was SF+GH incorporated = SF surface-applied >PM surface-applied + PM incorporated >PM surface-applied. Turf cover was ≥96% among all treatments 90 DAS. Rootmass density was greater (18% to 29%) at 103 DAS in GH incorporated plots combined with SF, when compared to all other treatments, but no rootmass differences subsequently were observed. Soil microbial activity generally was highest in PM-treated plots during the first 14 months following seeding, but not thereafter. Turf treated with SF had less microdochium patch (Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels and I.C. Hallett) and more bentgrass dead spot (Ophiosphaerella agrostis Dernoeden, M.P.S. Camara, N.R. O'Neill, van Berkum et M.E. Palm), when compared to PM-treated plots. Slightly less thatch developed in PM-treated turf when compared to plots receiving SF alone by the end of the second year. Penn G-2 and SF generally provided the best overall turf quality. This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of readily available N from SF for rapid establishment and that preplant incorporation of GH initially aided root development.

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Lutfor Rahman* and Farid Mir

This study identified the diversity and distribution of tree species and which vegetable crops are grown beneath them, uses of different plants, to identify the problem faced by the farmer, and to recommend a suitable small scale mixed production system. The study was conducted in three sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. Respondents for the survey were selected based on five different farm categories, i.e., tenant, marginal, small, medium, and large farm. The most common species in the study area was jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, 26.3) and mango (Mangifera indica, 22.5) followed by mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni, 10.3), coconut (Cocos nucifera, 10.0), while low prevalence species was gora neem (Melia azadirch, 0.18) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica, 0.19). A total number of 43 plant species were identified in the homestead of the study area of which 28 were horticultural, and 15 were timber and fuelwood producing species. Total income was found to increase with increase of farm size. A large number of vegetables (32 species) are cultivated in the study area, largely for local consumption. The study showed that stem amaranthus, indian spinach, aroids, sweet gourd, chili, turmeric, eggplant, and radish were grown under shade of jackfruit, mango, date palm, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. Country bean, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, and cowpea were found to grow as creeper on jackfruit, mango, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. Farmers earned cash income by selling trees and vegetables produced in the homestead. Among different tree species, jackfruit was identified as an important cash generating crop in the study area. Scopes for improvement of tree management practices were prevalent in the study area.

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amendment at a depth of 5 cm (≈256 Mg·ha −1 ) ….” The value 256 Mg·ha −1 should be 25.6 Mg·ha −1 . In the Materials and Methods: 2. “Composted dairy manure solids (compost; Agrigy, Palm Harbor, FL) were applied as an organic soil amendment at a rate of 508

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Philip Busey

Foerste, Preston Wells, and the students of St. Cloud High School, Osceola County; Clayton Hutcheson, Gene Joyner, and Alice Rosenberger, Palm Beach County; Bob Steiger, Pasco County; Joe M. Freeman, David Price, and Bok Tower Gardens, Polk County; Dan

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Amended backfill has no benefit when planting palms In an 18-month study in southern California, Hodel et al. (p. 457 ) evaluated amending backfill with a commercially available, composted, nitrogen-stabilized douglas fir shavings product

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Ed Stover, Dominick Scotto and James Salvatore

Pesticide spray practices for citrus (Citrus spp.) in the Indian River region of Florida were surveyed in 2001 as the first step in identifying opportunities for improving efficiency and reducing potential environmental impact. The survey covered 73% of grapefruit (C. paradisi) acreage in Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin and Palm Beach counties, comprising 70% of all Indian River commercial grapefruit. Large differences in spray practices were revealed. The focus of this survey was grapefruit spraying, since grapefruit represent 59% of fresh citrus shipped from the Indian River region, and are sprayed more intensively than citrus fruit grown for processing. In commercial groves, almost all foliar sprays to grapefruit are applied using air-assisted sprayers pulled through the groves by tractors. Use of engine-driven and power-takeoff-driven sprayers were reported with equal frequency and accounted for 89% of spray machines used. Lowvolume Curtec sprayers comprised the remainder. Spray volume for grape-fruit varied: 7.6% of acreage was sprayed at 25 to 35 gal/acre (230 to 330 L·ha-1) for all sprays; 4.2% was sprayed at 100 to 170 gal/acre (940 to 1600 L·ha-1) for all sprays; 15.3% was sprayed at 200 to 380 gal/acre (1900 to 3600 L·ha-1) for all sprays; 28.2% was sprayed at 450 to 750 gal/acre (4200 to 7000 L·ha-1) for all sprays; and 44.5% of grapefruit acreage was sprayed in a progressive manner from lower to higher volume as the season progresses. Many mid and high spray volume growers reported unacceptable results when they lowered spray volume. Although correlation was moderate (r = 0.35 to 0.45), regressions indicated that both total foliar pesticide spray material costs, and annual fungicidal copper (Cu) use increased with spray volume used for postbloom fungicides. Mean Cu use per acre was in the middle of the recommended range. All growers reported adjusting nozzling for tree height within a grove, and since Indian River groves are bedded, growers adjusted sprayer output differently for trees on bed tops versus furrows on 85% of acreage. Sprayers were shut off for missing trees on 83% of acreage, but this was done only for two or more adjacent trees on almost half of this area. Sensor-actuated sprayers were used to minimize off-target application on 14.7% of grapefruit acreage, but for an additional 21% of acreage, growers reported trying and abandoning this technology. While 88% of grove acreage was sprayed during the day, 75% of acreage sprayed using less than 100 gal/acre was sprayed at night. Growers reported no defined protocol for ceasing spray operations based on environmental conditions.

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Robert L. Green, Grant J. Klein, Francisco Merino and Victor Gibeault

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] greens across the southern United States are normally overseeded in the fall to provide a uniform green playing surface and tolerance to wear during winter bermudagrass dormancy. The spring transition from overseed grass back to bermudagrass is a major problem associated with overseeding because there can be a decline in putting green quality and playability. There have been recommendations, but relatively few published reports, on the effect of treatments associated with seedbed preparation and overseeding on bermudagrass spring transition. The objective of this 2-year study was to determine if spring transition of an overseeded `Tifgreen' bermudagrass green was influenced by fall-applied scalping level, chemical, and seed rate treatments. Treatment factors and levels were designed to reflect the range of practices used by golf course superintendents in the region at the time of the study. The green was located in the Palm Springs, Calif., area, which has relatively mild winters and a low desert, southern California climate. The first year of the study was from Sept. 1996 to July 1997 and the second year was from Sept. 1997 to July 1998. Scalping level treatments included a moderate and severe verticut and scalp; chemical treatments included a check, trinexapac-ethyl at two rates, and diquat; and seed rate treatments included a high and low rate of a mixture of `Seville' perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and `Sabre' rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.). The plot was maintained under golf course conditions and a traffic simulator was used to simulate golfer traffic. Visual ratings of percent green bermudagrass coverage were taken every 3 weeks from 20 Feb. 1997 to 29 July 1997 and from 11 Nov. 1997 to 22 July 1998. Visual turfgrass quality ratings were taken during the second year of the study. Results showed that spring transition was not influenced by fall-applied treatments during both years. Also, visual turfgrass quality was not influenced during the second year. Chemical names used: [4(cyclopropyl-αhydroxy-methylene) -3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl); 9,10-dihydro-8a-, 10a-diazoniaphenanthrene (diquat).

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Robert L. Green, Grant J. Klein, Francisco Merino and Victor Gibeault

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] greens across the southern United States are normally overseeded in the fall to provide a uniform green playing surface and tolerance to wear during winter bermudagrass dormancy. The spring transition from overseed grass back to bermudagrass is a major problem associated with overseeding because there can be a decline in putting green quality and playability. There have been recommendations, but relatively few published reports, on the effect of treatments associated with seedbed preparation and overseeding on bermudagrass spring transition. The objective of this 2-year study was to determine if spring transition of an overseeded `Tifgreen' bermudagrass green was influenced by fall-applied scalping level, chemical, and seed rate treatments. Treatment factors and levels were designed to reflect the range of practices used by golf course superintendents in the region at the time of the study. The green was located in the Palm Springs, Calif. area, which has relatively mild winters and a low desert, southern Calif. climate. The first year of the study was from September 1996 to July 1997 and the second year was from September1997 to July 1998. Scalping level treatments included a moderate and severe verticut and scalp; chemical treatments included a check, trinexapac-ethyl at two rates, and diquat; and seed rate treatments included a high and low rate of a mixture of `Seville' perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and `Sabre' rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.). The plot was maintained under golf course conditions and a traffic simulator was used to simulate golfer traffic. Visual ratings of percent green bermudagrass coverage were taken every 3 weeks from 20 Feb. 1997 to 29 July 1997 and from 11 Nov. 1997 to 22 July 1998. Visual turfgrass quality ratings were taken during the second year of the study. Results showed that spring transition was not influenced by fall-applied treatments during both years. Also, visual turfgrass quality was not influenced during the second year. Chemical names used [4(cyclopropyl-_hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl); 9,10-dihydro-8a-, 10a-diazoniaphenanthrene (diquat).

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David G. Himelrick

Fruits, Coconut, Coffee, Cranberry, Date, Grapes, Hazelnut or Filbert, Macadamia, Mango, Oil Palm, Olive, Papaya, Peach, Pears, Pecan, Pineapple, Pistachio, Plums, Strawberry, and Walnuts. Each chapter follows a uniform format with the following topical