effective in large, massed plantings, or in smaller-scale garden situations. Herbivorous mammals cause significant damage to ornamental plants in home landscapes ( Conover et al., 1995 ) and nurseries ( Bromley et al., 1992 ; Lemieux et al., 2000 ). Fencing
, R + W, or R + W + FR. The 14-W R + W + FR LED lamp was developed as a commercial replacement for 100- to 150-W INC lamps to regulate flowering of ornamental crops. We coordinated a commercial greenhouse grower trial to investigate the efficacy of the
measurement days in 2006 and 2007, reference potential evapotranspiration from an on-site MAWN weather station averaged 3.7 mm and 4.1 mm. Fig. 2. Daily water use (DWU; bars) and growth index (GI; lines) of four container-grown woody ornamentals under four
The American Horticulture Society (AHS) Heat Zone categories have been developed to categorize ornamental plant adaptability to different air temperature climates. These zones, like the Plant Hardiness map showing plant cold hardiness zones within the United States, are primarily north to south zones. Within the Great Plains region of the United States, the AHS Heat Zone categories provide a basic level of plant adaptability to air temperature, but do not account for plant reaction to variations in wind, relative humidity or sunlight. Daily reference evapotranspiration provides a single number that responds to variations in air temperature, wind, relative humidity and sunlight. In Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Mesonet provides a uniform statewide network of weather monitor towers that can be used to accurately calculate both short and tall American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) reference evapotranspiration (ref ET) across the entire state. Accumulated daily ref ET values can be used to provide further refinement in categorizing ornamental plant adaptability.
When one searches the literature for information pertaining to the nutrition of woody ornamental plants it soon becomes obvious that there has not been too much published in this field. And most of the experimental work on the nutrition of trees has been concerned with varying combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Also, most of the work that is reported was done in the field, either to trees growing in the landscape or in nurseries and as a result most of the studies report a positive response only to the application of nitrogen and little or no response to the application of phosphorus or potassium. A brief review of some of the literature on fertilizer experiments is contained in the works of Wikle (18) and Himeleck (9). Since this symposium is concerned with potassium in horticulture, I will confine most of my remarks to the place that this mineral element has on the growth and development of woody ornamental plants.
Because clonal multiplication through conventional methods of asexual propagation is not rapid enough to meet the sharp increase in demand for tropical ornamental plants, the feasibility of the use of tissue culture for rapid clonal propagation has been increasingly investigated. Through this method, it has become possible to asexually propagate rapidly some plants which are difficult or slow to increase through conventional means. Even in cases where plants can be readily propagated by conventional methods, tissue culture may be used advantageously for rapid clonal increase of newly selected cultivars or cultivars available in limited numbers to establish propagation stocks in a much shorter time. The objective of this paper is to summarize our work on the tissue culture of tropical ornamental plants.
ZZ (Zamioculcas zamiifolia), a member of the family Araceae, is emerging as an important foliage plant due to its aesthetic appearance, ability to tolerate low light and drought, and resistance to diseases and pests. However, little information is available regarding its propagation, production, and use. This report presents relevant botanical information and results of our four-year evaluation of this plant to the ornamental plant industry.
The present high cost of maintenance is a key factor in every sector of landscape industry. Weed control is a particularly expensive aspect of maintenance and land managers constantly are seeking more effective methods of control. Since soil cultivation is laborious and expensive, herbicides and mulches are becoming popular in many countries. In contrast to herbicides, which have become widely used in ornamentals only in the past 20 years, mulching has been used for centuries.
A comprehensive study of new introductions of shade and ornamental trees adapted to the North Central United States has been underway at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, since 1966. Goal of the IO-year research effort is to evaluate characteristics of each cultivar, paying special attention to identifying the suitability of each for planting in urban and suburban environments, along street and highway right-of-ways, and under utility lines.
Most areas of northern California have ample water supplies from reservoirs, aqueducts, or deep wells, but some regions are not as fortunate. Such a region is Half Moon Bay located just 35 km south of San Francisco along the coastal plain. Several large producers of ornamental plants and cut flowers are located in the vicinity. Competition between homeowners and producers of ornamentals for available water in this area became critical by 1977 as a result of urban sprawl. In addition state and regional agencies began taking action to curtail polluted runoff waters from ornamental production sites. Locally the Coastside County Water District Water Quota Ordinance of 1977-78 instituted a water quota system with strong penalties for noncompliance. Statewide the California Fish and Game Code (1) was strictly enforced to prevent certain classified materials from passing into the waters of the state. The combination of these developments activated a search by growers for better use or reuse of irrigation water and separation of clean runoff waters from those that might be nutrient laden or otherwise polluted.