A greenhouse solution culture experiment was conducted to study the interactions of Ca, K and Mn supply on the concentration of 7 elements in bark tissues of ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees as related to internal bark necrosis (IBN). Under a regime of low Ca and high Mn, IBN symptoms developed late in the second growing season on the scion barks but not on the rootstock bark. Both the degree of severity and the incidence of the disorder increased with increasing K levels. Low Ca and high Mn concentrations in the barks are apparently necessary for the development of IBN, and under these conditions K affects the degree of severity. It is suggested that the higher K concentrations enhanced Mn toxicity by lowering the threshold for Mn-induced IBN, while Ca responded as a detoxifying agent. Low concentrations of B and P may contribute to IBN development, while Mg and Fe were not related to symptom development.
Total N content in the shoots of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ‘Bright Golden Anne’ grown in hardwood bark was significantly greater when utilizing (NH4)2SO4 source of N than with KNO3 source. The NH4 + concn in the shoots was greatest at the low pH range when (NH4)2SO4 was the source of N. The NH4 + concn in the media was greatest at the low pH range when utilizing the (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 sources of N.
The greatest dry wt of shoots was obtained if test plants were treated with both NH4 + and NO3 − forms of N with NH4NO3 source of N at the higher pH range and without the nitrification inhibitor.
Bulk density (BD) of potting media increased as the percentage of sand was increased in the medium. Because of the “fitting” together of particles, volume of medium mixtures was always less than the total volume of the separate components. Particle size distribution was determined most accurately on a volume basis and was used to identify the potting mixtures. The percentage of medium components (bark or sand) retained on any given sieve size could be determined from BD data. Percolation rate, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) declined as the percentage of sand was increased in the potting mixture. CEC was most accurately determined on a volume basis. Increasing the percentage of sand in the potting medium raised pH from 4.1 to 5.4.
A significant pest affecting commonly planted Betula spp. is the birch leafminer (Fenusa pusilla Lepeletier), an insect that can be present in large populations in the landscape and can greatly reduce the vigor and ornamental value of these trees. Twenty-two interspecific crosses were performed between leafminer resistant and susceptible Betula species in an attempt to create the novel combination of ornamental white bark and significant leafminer resistance. Of the nine successful crosses, two produced resistant offspring. Progeny of the diploid × hexaploid cross B. turkestanica Litvin (2x) × B. alleghaniensis Britt. (6x) displayed a broad range of resistance levels, likely the result of segregating alleles contributed by the hexaploid parent. All crosses involving highly resistant individuals of B. costata Trautv. (2x) yielded leafminer susceptible progeny. These results suggest that the larval antibiosis demonstrated by B. alleghaniensis and B. costata is inherited as a recessive trait, and exhibits a gene dosage effect as evidenced by the B. turkestanica × B. alleghaniensis offspring. While most progeny of the B. populifolia Marsh (2x) × B. maximowicziana Regal (2x) cross were susceptible, a single resistant offspring, which was found to be triploid (3x), displayed a mechanism of resistance similar to that of a hypersensitive response. No strong intersectional barriers to hybridization were observed and all interploidy crosses were successful. The chromosome numbers of B. costata (2n = 2x = 28) and B. turkestanica (2n = 2x = 28) are reported here for the first time. The results of this study indicate that the potential exists for the development of insect resistant, ornamental white-barked birch clones through the implementation of a planned, systematic breeding program.
The physical and water-release characteristics of a gasifier residue in combination with bark, Canadian sphagnum peat, and sand were determined. Both gasifier residue and peat had characteristics more favorable for plant growth than bark or sand alone. The combination of gasifier residue and peat produced characteristics superior to gasifier residue or peat alone. Gasifier residue and combinations of gasifier residue and peat had almost twice the available water of a standard nursery medium. The addition of sand or bark decreased the performance of gasifier residue in a number of physical parameters. Unsieved gasifier residue had a particle size distribution suitable for container plant production.
Hardwood bark as a soil amendment for container-grown plants suppressed several species of parasitic nematodes in greenhouse tests. Volumetric bark to soil ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 greatly reduced incidence of root-knot caused by Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood and M. incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). A 2:1 bark to soil mixture inhibited galling by M. incognita and population development of Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven and Trichodorus christiei Allen on Forsythia intermedia Zabel.
Rhizoctonia and Pythium crown and root rot of Euphorbia pulcherrima willd ex Kotzch cv. Annette Hegg Dark Red were suppressed in a composted hardwood bark medium amended with sphagnum peat. The suppression equalled that obtained in an aerated steam-treated peat medium drenched with fungicidies. Growth of ‘Annette Hegg Dark Red’ produced in the sphagnum peat-amended bark was improved over plants produced in a sterilized and fungicide drenched soil-peat-perlite medium. Addition of muck to composted hardwood bark negated the desirable growth effects.
In the southeastern United States, inconsistent pine bark (PB) supplies and overabundance of cotton gin by-products warrant investigation about the feasibility of replacing PB with cotton gin compost (CGC) for container horticultural plant production. Most research on the use of composted organic substrates for horticultural plant production has focused on shoot growth responses, so there is a need to document the effect of these substrates on root growth. In 2004, `Blitz' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), `Hot Country' lantana (Lantana camara `Hot Country'), and weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) were placed in Horhizotrons to evaluate root growth in 100% PB and three PB:CGC substrates containing, by volume, 60:40 PB:CGC, 40:60 PB:CGC, and 0:100 PB:CGC. Horhizotrons were placed in a greenhouse, and root growth in all substrates was measured for each cultivar. Physical properties (total porosity, water holding capacity, air space, and bulk density) and chemical properties (electrical conductivity and pH) were determined for all substrates. Physical properties of 100% PB were within recommended guidelines and were either within or above recommended ranges for all PB:CGC substrate blends. Chemical properties of all substrates were within or above recommended guidelines. Root growth of all species in substrates containing CGC was similar to or more enhanced than root growth in 100% PB.
Paclobutrazol, a triazole growth regulator, effectively regulates pecan vegetative growth when applied as a soil or trunk drench. However, its absorption and subsequent biological activity in leaves and shoot tissue is not well understood. Terminal shoots from scaffolds of 8-yr-old `Chickasaw' pecan trees were treated with paclobutrazol after leaf flush in mid-May of 1988. Treatments included painting a mixture of 10 mg a.i. paclobutrazol and 1 ml distilled water onto either 1-yr-old wood, green wood, or the abaxial leaf surface. Shoot growth measurements and nut counts were taken in October of 1988 and 1989 on the treated shoots and all shoots arising from them. Paclobutrazol significantly increased the number of nuts per shoot in 1988, but did not affect shoot growth. More nuts were found on shoots from the 1-yr-old wood and leaf treatments than from the control and green wood treatments. In 1989, shoot growth was significantly less in the 2 former than the 2 latter treatments. These data indicate that paclobutrazol was absorbed through the bark of 1-yr-old wood and abaxial leaf tissue and sub-sequently translocated to areas of shoot growth.
Tomatoes are the most abundantly produced greenhouse vegetable crop in the United States. The use of compost substrates has increased in recent years for the greenhouse production of many vegetables, bedding plants, and nursery crops. `Blitz' tomatoes were grown during the spring and fall growing seasons in 2004 in six substrate blends of pine bark (PB), a traditional production substrate in the Southeastern U.S., and cotton gin compost (CGC), an agricultural by-product, to assess the potential use of CGC as a viable replacement for PB for the production of greenhouse tomatoes. Treatments ranged from 100% PB to 100% CGC. During both growing seasons, plants grown in substrates containing CGC produced similar total, marketable, and cull yields compared to plants grown in 100% PB. Substrates containing 40% or more CGC had significantly higher EC levels both initially and throughout both growing seasons than did 20% CGC and 100% PB blends. Initial and final pH of all substrates was similar during both studies and remained within recommended ranges for greenhouse tomato production. Water-holding capacity increased as the percent CGC increased in each substrate blend, indicating the need for less irrigation volume for substrates containing CGC compared to the 100% PB control. Results indicate that CGC can be used as an amendment to or replacement for PB in greenhouse tomato production.