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Zhenyong Wang and David R. Dilley

Multiple harvests are often necessary to achieve maximum yield of well-colored high-quality apples. This is true for most cultivars, and particularly for `Gala'. Multiple harvests add significantly to the cost of producing apples. We tested our hypotheses that anthocyanin production of ReTain™-treated apples may be enhanced by ethephon without overly stimulating other ripening processes and ReTain™ may promote uniform maturation of apples within and between trees by delaying maturation and ripening processes. Experiments were conducted with `Gala', `Empire', and `Jonagold' apples at the MSU CHES in 1997 and 1998 employing the rootstock/training systems research plot. Treatments were 1) ReTain™ (50g/ac.) applied 3 to 4 weeks before harvest, 2) ReTain™ followed by ethephon (3/4 pt/ac.) applied 1 to 2 weeks before harvest, 3) ethephon, and 4) control (Silwet® L-77 surfactant only). ReTain™ applied alone delayed the onset of the ethylene climacteric and red color development of `Gala' apples. ReTain™ followed by ethephon delayed the onset of the ethylene climacteric and red color development at the commercial harvest date was not significantly affected. Similar results were obtained with the `Empire' and `Jonagold'. Results with ReTain™ and ReTain™ + ethephon in 1998 on `Gala', `Empire', and `Jonagold' apples were more profound than in 1997; we attribute this to less environmental stress on the trees, which were well-irrigated in 1998. The ripening-related effects of treatments were reflected in the storability of fruit 1997 in air and particularly during CA storage where the action of ethylene in ripening can be attenuated. ReTain™ - and ReTain™ + ethephon-treated fruit were still at preclimacteric ethylene levels after 6 months in CA with excellent retention of flesh firmness and shelf-life, while ethephon and control fruit had higher ethylene levels and softened more during storage and shelf-life evaluation.

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Ann Marie Connor, James J. Luby and Cindy B.S. Tong

Narrow-sense heritability and among-family and within-family variance components were estimated for antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPH), and anthocyanin content (ACY) in blueberry (Vaccinium L. sp.) fruit. AA, TPH, and ACY were determined in the parents and in 10 offspring from each of 20 random crosses for each of 2 years at Becker, Minn. Offspring-midparent regression analysis provided combined-year heritability estimates of 0.43 ± 0.09 (P ≤ 0.0001) for AA, 0.46 ± 0.11 (P ≤ 0.0001) for TPH, and 0.56 ± 0.10 (P ≤ 0.0001) for ACY. Analyses of variance delineated variation among and within families for AA, TPH, and ACY (P ≤ 0.001). Year-to-year variation in the means for all offspring genotypes was not significant for AA or TPH, but there were changes in rank between years for families and for offspring within families for these traits. Year-to-year variation in the mean for all offspring genotypes was significant for ACY, but rank changes were observed only among offspring within families, not among families. In total, 18 of 200 offspring from 7 of the 20 crosses were transgressive segregants for AA, exceeding the higher parent of the cross by at least two sds. Estimates of variance components showed that variation among families accounted for 24% to 27% of total variance for the three traits. However, variation within families was greater than that among families, accounting for 38% to 56% of total variance for the three traits. These results suggest that increasing antioxidant activity in blueberry through breeding is feasible, and that the breeding strategies utilized should exploit the large within-family variation that exists.

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Ann Marie Connor, James J. Luby, Cindy B.S. Tong, Chad E. Finn and James F. Hancock

Dietary antioxidants may have a role in preventing some of the chronic diseases in humans resulting from free radical oxidation of lipids and other cellular components. Blueberries (Vaccinium L. sp.) are considered one of the best fresh fruit sources of antioxidants, and there is the potential to increase the antioxidant activity further through breeding. Thus, the variability of fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was examined among a set of 16 highbush and interspecific hybrid cultivars grown at locations in Minnesota (MN), Michigan (MI), and Oregon (OR) over 2 years (1998 and 1999) to determine effects of genotype, year, and location. Nine cultivars were common to all three locations in both years. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPH), and total anthocyanin content (ACY), were determined in triplicate samples from each genotype. Cultivars differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in AA, TPH, and ACY both within and over locations. The single location mean AA for all cultivars changed significantly between the 2 years in OR and in MI, while the single location mean for TPH differed between the 2 years in MN and MI. Changes in cultivar rank were significant for AA, TPH, and ACY between years within each location. Significant changes in rank for TPH and ACY were also noted between pairs of locations as well. Pearson's correlation for AA (based on cultivar means) appeared highest between MN and OR (r = 0.90) and MN and MI (r = 0.69) in 1998; correlations between locations for the combined years were 0.74 for MN and OR, 0.55 for MN and MI and 0.45 for MI and OR. For the group of nine cultivars, AA correlated well with TPH within each location, with r ranging from 0.67 to 0.95 for data from individual and combined years. Correlation of AA with ACY at each location was lower than that for AA with TPH, in both individual and combined years. This study demonstrates significant genotype× environment interaction for AA in blueberry.

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), whereas Kleinhenz et al. (2003) reported that shading reduced anthocyanin content of three lettuce cultivars. Therefore, growers can use high-intensity discharge lamps (HID) such as HPS or metal halide lamps for SL and

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Carl M. Jones and James R. Myers

Continued and mounting evidence of the health benefits provided by carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments has increased public interest in dietary sources of these important phytonutrients. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the primary dietary contributor of lycopene and an important source of beta-carotene. A collection of tomatoes containing the genes hp-1, dg, ogc, Ip, B and Af that are known to affect carotenoid and anthocyanin levels have been analyzed using HPLC. Levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene have been determined in these accessions. Accession LA 3005, containing the dg gene, had the highest lycopene levels of the accessions analyzed (14 mg/100 g fresh wt.). A rapid HPLC method for quantitation of carotenoid levels from tomato fruit has been developed. “Heirloom” black and purple tomatoes have also been included in the accessions analyzed and have carotenoid levels comparable to cultivated red tomatoes. Anthocyanin presence has been confirmed only in the accessions LA 1996 (Af) and in some fruit of segregating plants from LA 3668 (Abg). Total monomeric anthocyanin content of LA 1996 as measured by the pH differential method is estimated to be 5.6 mg/100 g in the outer pericarp tissues and 18.6 mg/100 g in the skin tissue.

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Gioia Massa, Thomas Graham, Tim Haire, Cedric Flemming II, Gerard Newsham and Raymond Wheeler

content and the leaf sample area, an estimate of the chlorophyll content per unit area (mg·m –2 ) was calculated. Anthocyanin levels in red romaine lettuce. Anthocyanin levels were measured in the lettuce cultivar Outredgeous based on a modified procedure

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Masahumi Johkan, Kazuhiro Shoji, Fumiyuki Goto, Shin-nosuke Hashida and Toshihiro Yoshihara

rarely been studied. The light spectrum also stimulates the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Blue light induced the accumulation of flavonoids ( Ebisawa et al., 2008 ; Kojima et al., 2010 ) and anthocyanins, which are one class of flavonoid compounds

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W.J. Steyn, D.M. Holcroft, S.J.E. Wand and G. Jacobs

Exposed fruit of `Rosemarie' blushed pear (Pyrus communis L.) displayed daily fluctuations in color in response to temperature while color was more stable in other blushed and fully red cultivars. `Rosemarie' pears increased in redness with the passing of cold fronts, but rapidly lost red color during intermittent warmer periods. Studies on anthocyanin degradation in detached apples and pears indicated that preharvest red color loss was due to net anthocyanin degradation at high temperatures. In support, anthocyanin degradation in attached `Rosemarie' pears corresponded with a warm period during fruit development. Susceptibility to color loss was dependent on the ability of fruit to accumulate anthocyanin. This is due to an exponential relationship between anthocyanin concentration and hue at high pigment levels and a linear relationship at lower pigment levels. Blushed and red pear cultivars that accumulate more anthocyanin with lesser dependence on climatic conditions were less susceptible to fluctuation in color.

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Maria A. Macias-Leon and Daniel I. Leskovar

various phytonutrients such as anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and thiosulfates. Flavonoids continue to attract attention because of their potential implication in cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and cancer ( Middleton et al., 2000

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Shiow Y. Wang, Kim S. Lewers, Linda Bowman and Min Ding

treatment of cancer is very complex and far from clear, many studies have documented the potential anticancer effects of flavonols and anthocyanins ( Birt et al., 2001 ; Hou et al., 2003 ). Kang et al. (2003) reported that anthocyanins reduced the growth