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preferential uptake or uptake pathway blockage. Osmotic stress and ion toxicity disturb plant growth and development ( Taiz et al., 2015 ). Osmotic stress limits water availability and can pose a rapid threat to plant growth, whereas excessive accumulation of

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salinity of the irrigation water and rootstock on tissue Na and Cl concentrations, indicating that salinity effect on Na and Cl uptake varied with rootstock. In R. ×fortuniana , no differences in Na concentrations in stems and leaves were found among the

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Ca is taken up passively with water and is closely linked to transpiration ( Clarkson, 1984 ; Marschner, 1995 ). Chang and Miller (2004) reported that Ca uptake increases with higher transpiration rates. Furthermore, Frantz et al. (2004

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resulting from the formation of Fe forms that are unavailable for plant uptake. Alkalinity may also be associated with deficiency of cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn), K, and phosphorus (P) resulting from low solubility ( FAO, 2000 ). Alkalinity in water is caused

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/or increase in water loss and decrease in water uptake. It may be concluded that higher reduction of CSE than BFH may be related to high bacterial population which reduced water uptake. Vase solution uptake and RFW. Vase solution uptake increased during the

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content in pak choi and the effect has been confirmed in multiple soil types ( Pant et al., 2011 , 2009 ). Dilution rate (i.e., ratio of compost to water) has been identified as a primary factor contributing to variability in tea effect. Studies on the

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multiplication ratios. The fiber reduced water uptake and prevented hypoxia. The fiber matrix may be constructed with varying thickness or used with varied volumes of medium to allow greater biomass with reduced hyperhydricity. The simple alterations of medium

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-temperature conditions ( Du and Tachibana, 1995 ), and it can promote Ca uptake in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) fruit ( Barickman et al., 2014a ; de Freitas et al., 2011 ). Studies have demonstrated that adequate levels of Ca in tomato fruit have positive effects on

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al., 1974 ). For pistachio production in California using UCB-1 rootstocks and existing scion cultivars, soil B is excessive if leaflet concentrations exceed 800 ppm ( Sanden et al., 2016 ). Generally, irrigation water in excess of 3 ppm B restricts

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: Castano ( pc ), Roc d’Or (colored), and OR5630 (white). Thirty seeds from each line were planted on 13 Aug. 2018 and a similar procedure to the first experiment was performed to collect the data. Water uptake experiment. Rate of water uptake among

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