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Mingying Xiang, Justin Q. Moss, Dennis L. Martin and Yanqi Wu

overhead daily with the nonportable water (EC = 0.5 dS·m −1 ) for a total of 7 d. Thereafter, all the pots were subirrigated for 8 weeks. Experimental design and statistical analysis. A split-plot experiment was conducted with six replications with salinity

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Beiquan Mou, Steven J. Klosterman, Amy Anchieta, Elisabeth Wood and Krishna V. Subbarao

positive for V. dahliae and were excluded from the experiment. The 120 accessions used in a previous screening experiment ( Villarroel-Zeballos et al., 2012 ) were also excluded from the current investigation. The remaining 268 accessions plus 9

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James D. Oster, D.E. Stottlmyer and M.L. Arpaia

concentration in the irrigation water ranged from 1.1 to 1.3 mmol·L −1 . Kalmar and Lahav (1977) reported maximum ECe levels in the root zone ranging from 1.8 to 2.0 dS·m −1 obtained in a field experiment conducted near Akko, Israel. In the study conducted by

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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Mostafa Farajpour, Mostafa Arab and Mohammad Mahdi Majidi

wheatgrass genotypes evaluated in this study. The ultimate aim was to compare their tolerance to salinity. The genotypes were initially categorized as the Iranian desert wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass, and crested wheatgrass, and the experiments were conducted

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Fernanda Souza Krupek, Christian T. Christensen, Charles E. Barrett and Lincoln Zotarelli

, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualf belonging to the Ellzey series ( USDA, 1983 ). The soil texture is sandy and the particle-size distribution in the topsoil is 94% sand, 2.5% silt, and 3.5% clay. Experimental design. The experiment was conducted

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Neo Edwin Nyakane, Moosa Mahmood Sedibe and Elisha Markus

. Cations of nutrient solutions used to study effects of Ca:Mg ratio, magnetic field, and mycorrhizal fungi on yield and mineral composition of rose geranium. Layout. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications

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Rita de Cássia Alves, Ana Santana de Medeiros, Mayara Cristina M. Nicolau, Francisco de Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Warzea Lima, Edna Maria M. Aroucha and Priscila Lupino Gratão

and Technological Sciences Department at the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), in Mossoró, RN, Brazil (lat. 05°11′ S, long. 37°20′ W, altitude 18 m). The experiment was conducted in an arc-shaped greenhouse, 7 m wide by 18 m long

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

commercial substrates with two water sources (fertigation and clear water irrigation). Materials and methods Plant material and experimental design. The plant materials used in this experiment were 4-week-old seedlings of ‘Bravo White’ petunia. The plants

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Laurie E. Drinkwater

Systems approaches to research can be used to study characteristics of agricultural systems that cannot be addressed using conventional factorial experiments. The goal of a factorial experiment is to break down a complex system in order to isolate and study specific components and identify cause-effect relationships. In contrast, systems experiments aim to understand how a complex system functions as a whole and thus requires that intact systems be studied. Two approaches have been successfully applied to agricultural systems research: 1) field station experiments where simulated cropping systems are established in replicated plots and 2) studies of intact agroecosystems using commercial farms as study sites. These two approaches have complementary strengths and limitations and have made significant contributions to our understanding of ecological processes in agricultural systems. The development of sustainable agroecosystems will be best accomplished using an integrated research approach combining systems experiments with appropriately designed factorial experiments.

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Tripti Vashisth and Taylor Livingston

to alter soil or irrigation water pH. All of the trees in the plot showed symptoms for HLB and were confirmed positive for C Las. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design with split-plot (n = 5), with pruning treatments as main