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Fernanda Souza Krupek, Christian T. Christensen, Charles E. Barrett and Lincoln Zotarelli

, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualf belonging to the Ellzey series ( USDA, 1983 ). The soil texture is sandy and the particle-size distribution in the topsoil is 94% sand, 2.5% silt, and 3.5% clay. Experimental design. The experiment was conducted

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Neo Edwin Nyakane, Moosa Mahmood Sedibe and Elisha Markus

. Cations of nutrient solutions used to study effects of Ca:Mg ratio, magnetic field, and mycorrhizal fungi on yield and mineral composition of rose geranium. Layout. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications

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Rita de Cássia Alves, Ana Santana de Medeiros, Mayara Cristina M. Nicolau, Francisco de Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Warzea Lima, Edna Maria M. Aroucha and Priscila Lupino Gratão

and Technological Sciences Department at the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), in Mossoró, RN, Brazil (lat. 05°11′ S, long. 37°20′ W, altitude 18 m). The experiment was conducted in an arc-shaped greenhouse, 7 m wide by 18 m long

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

commercial substrates with two water sources (fertigation and clear water irrigation). Materials and methods Plant material and experimental design. The plant materials used in this experiment were 4-week-old seedlings of ‘Bravo White’ petunia. The plants

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Laurie E. Drinkwater

Systems approaches to research can be used to study characteristics of agricultural systems that cannot be addressed using conventional factorial experiments. The goal of a factorial experiment is to break down a complex system in order to isolate and study specific components and identify cause-effect relationships. In contrast, systems experiments aim to understand how a complex system functions as a whole and thus requires that intact systems be studied. Two approaches have been successfully applied to agricultural systems research: 1) field station experiments where simulated cropping systems are established in replicated plots and 2) studies of intact agroecosystems using commercial farms as study sites. These two approaches have complementary strengths and limitations and have made significant contributions to our understanding of ecological processes in agricultural systems. The development of sustainable agroecosystems will be best accomplished using an integrated research approach combining systems experiments with appropriately designed factorial experiments.

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Tripti Vashisth and Taylor Livingston

to alter soil or irrigation water pH. All of the trees in the plot showed symptoms for HLB and were confirmed positive for C Las. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design with split-plot (n = 5), with pruning treatments as main

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Leo G. Albrigo and Ed W. Stover

, and four ‘Valencia’ sweet orange blocks. In late January, three other ‘Valencia’ blocks were sprayed once. Except for two tests, a randomized block design with four plots of four record trees/treatment was used. In two ‘Valencia’ tests, four plots of

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Jongtae Lee, Byeonggyu Min, Heedae Kim, Juyeon Kim, Young-Seok Kwon and George E. Boyhan

hand in March, April, and May. Experimental design. Field experiments were conducted during two consequent seasons using a split-split plot design with three replicates. The main plots included a sheet of transparent mulch, black polyethylene mulch, or

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Kenneth G. McCabe, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, Jake Behrens and William R. Graves

nutrients and slowly release them back to plants over time, and this theory may be even more applicable in other production systems where BC can be used as a soil amendment. Although our experiments were not designed to determine the specific effects of BC

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Matthew B. Bertucci, Katherine M. Jennings, David W. Monks, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Frank J. Louws and David L. Jordan

and 2016, respectively. Scions for the experiment were the two triploid (seedless) watermelon cultivars: Exclamation (Syngenta Seeds, Greensboro, NC), an oblong, standard-sized watermelon and Extazy (Hazera Seeds Ltd., Berurim, Israel), a round mini