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M. Marutani, R. Quitugua, C. Simpson and R. Crisostomo

A demonstration vegetable garden was constructed for students in elementary, middle and high schools to expose them to agricultural science. On Charter Day, a University-wide celebration, students were invited to the garden on the University campus. The purpose of this project was twofold: (1) for participants to learn how to make a garden and (2) for visitors to see a variety of available crops and cultural techniques. Approximately 30 vegetable crops were grown. The garden also presented some cultural practices to improve plant development, which included weed control by solarization, mulching, a drip irrigation system, staking, shading and crop cover. Different types of compost bins were shown and various nitrogen-fixing legumes were displayed as useful hedge plants for the garden.

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Donald N. Maynard

Carrots and Related Vegetable Umbelliferae . V.E. Rubatzky, C. F. Quiros, and P. W. Simon. 1999. CABI Publishing, 10 E. 40 th St., Suite 3203, New York, NY 10016. 294 p., illustrated, softcover. $50.00. ISBN 0-85199-129-7.

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Samson Zeray Tesfay, Sakhile Mathe, Albert T. Modi and Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

Commercially available leafy vegetables are known for their nutritional properties, mostly rich in antioxidants ( Shukla et al., 2006 ). Consuming these leafy vegetables that contain various antioxidant compounds may therefore boost the immune

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James L. Glancey, Edwin Kee and Tracy Wootten

The vegetable industry is important to our nation as a provider of nutritious and safe food directly consumed by our citizens. It is also critical to a rich and vigorous national agriculture. During the 20th century, engineering innovations coupled with advances in genetics, crop science, and plant protection have allowed the vegetable industry in the U.S. to plant and harvest significantly more land with higher yields while using less labor. Currently, fresh and processed vegetables generate 16% of all U.S. crop income, but from only 2% of the harvested cropland. Yet, many of the challenges in production that existed a century ago still exist for many crops. Perhaps the most significant challenge confronting the industry is labor, often accounting for 50% of all production costs. A case study of the mechanized production system developed for processed tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) confirms that systematic methodology in which the machines, cultural practices, and cultivars are designed together must be adopted to improve the efficiency of current mechanized systems as well as provide profitable alternatives for crops currently hand-harvested. Only with this approach will horticultural crop production remain competitive and economically viable in the U.S.

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Ariana P. Torres and Maria I. Marshall

The total dollars of sales of organic certified foods have steadily increased over the last decade. The 2014 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic survey report showed that fruits and vegetables remain the top two sectors of organic food

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Yansheng Li, Ming Du, Qiuying Zhang, Guanghua Wang, Jian Jin, Stephen Herbert and Xiaobing Liu

-June on soybean protein content. All these studies mentioned were focused on the yield and quality of grain soybean. There is less information available for the effect of planting date on fresh pod yield, particularly for seed quality of vegetable soybean

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Nancy E. Roe and Darrin M. Parmenter

Poster Session 31— Vegetable Crops Management-Cropping Systems 2 29 July 2006, 1:15–2:00 p.m.

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Vincent M. Russo

Abiotic and biotic factors, and government farm policy, affect peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production especially in the Southern Plains of the United States. A coincident increase in vegetable production has led to interest in diversification of production on land that has historically supported peanut. A multi-year experiment was conducted from 1998 to 2001 to determine how rotating bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) with peanut affect yields of all three crops. In the first year, the site was planted to peanut, except for those areas of the field that would have monocultured bell pepper or sweet corn throughout the experiment. In following years, parts of the field that were planted with peanut were planted with either peanut, bell pepper, or sweet corn. Except for the monocultured crops, plots had 2 years of peanut and one year each of bell pepper or sweet corn in one of four rotations. Yields were determined and terminal market value was assigned to crops. Cumulative yields for monocultured bell pepper and sweet corn were 27.8 and 22.8 Mg·ha-1 after 4 years. The best yield of bell pepper or sweet corn in any rotation was 15.3 or 11.3 Mg·ha-1, respectively. Rotation did not affect peanuts, and cumulative yields for monocultured peanut were 8.39 Mg·ha-1 and averaged 2.13 Mg·ha-1 per year in rotations. Cumulative yields for all crops in rotations where vegetables were planted in the last 2 years averaged 21.5 Mg·ha-1 as opposed to 13.8 Mg·ha-1 when vegetables were planted in the middle 2 years of a 4-year rotation. Yields of all crops were modified by environmental conditions, and terminal market price affected crop value so that high yields were not always associated with high returns.

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Charles S. Vavrina

The research reviewed here represents the majority of the information available on transplant age to date. When the results of these studies are distilled down to the “ideal” transplant age for setting of a specific crop, we generally arrive at the recommendations found in the 1962 edition of Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers. The conflicting results in the literature on transplant age may be due to the different environmental and cultural conditions that the plants were exposed to, both in the greenhouse and in the field. The studies did reveal that the transplant age window for certain crops might be wider than previously thought. Older transplants generally result in earlier yields while younger transplants will produce comparable yields, but take longer to do so. Our modern cultivars, improved production systems, and technical expertise enable us to produce high yields regardless of transplant age. The data, in general, support the view that if a vegetable grower requires resets after an catastrophic establishment failure (freeze, flood, etc.), they need not fear the older plants usually on hand at the transplant production facility.

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J.E. Epperson, P.D. McPherson and F.E. Stegelin

This study examined factors contributing to the development of the produce industry in Georgia and means of overcoming barriers to entry into the national fresh fruit and vegetable market. A survey of produce growers in Georgia was conducted in 2003–04. Information obtained from the respondents included economic and operational characteristics of grower enterprises and more specifically factors limiting production, expected operational changes, and marketing practices. Grower tendencies were ascertained from survey responses with respect to sales using regression analysis. Factors found important in overcoming barriers to national market entry stem from the degree of specialization and sophistication of producers.