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Lutfor S. Rahman* and Farid A. Mir

The study was conducted in three sub-districts of Gazipur district in Bangladesh. It identified the diversity and distribution of tree species and which vegetable crops are grown beneath them, uses of different plants, to identify the problem faced by the farmers. Total of 43 tree plant species are used for fruit and timber were identified in the study area. Based on diversified uses, the major fruit species were jackfruit, mango and coconut. The major timber species were koroi (Albizia procera), raintree (Samanea saman), neem (Azadirachta indica), teak (Tectona grandis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.). Total income was found to increase with increase of farm size. A large number of vegetables (32 species) are cultivated in the study area, largely for local consumption. The study showed that stem amaranthus, indian spinach, aroids, sweet gourd, chili pepper, turmeric, eggplant, and radish were grown under shade of jackfruit, mango, date palm, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. The total income from trees in the last five years was higher in the large farm category than that in the tenant category. The major problems faced by the farmers in tree establishment were damage caused by animals which was reported by 68% of the respondents.

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Mary Lamberts and Jane Polston

Florida tomato growers have been managing tomato mottle mosaic virus (TMoV), vectored by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemesia argentifolia) since 1990. Bean growers in the Dade and Palm Beach County area have tried to control bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) since it entered the area with Hurricane Andrew in 1992. During Summer 1997, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was found in summer-grown tomatoes in Dade County. In Fall 1997, tomato growers were notified of the new problem and attended a workshop discussing the rigorous control that would be needed to minimize its effects. They instituted scouting and roguing programs in conjunction with appropriate pest management procedures. Dade bean growers worked with the Florida Fruit & Vegetable Assn. to obtain a Section 18 for imidacloprid. Bean and tomato growers learned about gemini viruses affecting both crops and the distribution of these viruses in the Americas in the fall of 1998. Bean growers have also learned how to use imidacloprid in late 1998/early 1999. Extension methods used and their success will also be discussed.

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John G. Seeley

America hunting for new species of palms; so the party was held April 29, 1948. Various dignitaries lauded Bailey's work and influence on everything he touched. Then he responded. I am sure you will find it interesting. and now, a “word” from Liberty Hyde

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Fernando Maul, Steven A. Sargent, Murat O. Balaban, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Donald J. Huber and Charles A. Sims

Kenneth Shuler, Palm Beach County Agricultural Extension Service, for providing the tomatoes used for these experiments. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore

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Kimberly A. Klock-Moore

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station journal series no. R-06055. I wish to thank Maria Bravo and Iraida Rafols for their technical assistance, the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County for the SYT compost product, the Principles of

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David A. Francko, Kenneth G. Wilson, Qingshun Q. Li and Maria A. Equiza

(supercooling). For example, Francko and Wilson (2004) demonstrated that although cold-hardy palms (Palmae) exhibit a significant constitutive foliar cold-resistance capability, enhanced cold tolerance (an additional 5 to 10 °F) can rapidly be induced by

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S.J. Locascio, G.J. Hochmuth, S.M. Olson, R.C. Hochmuth, A.A. Csizinszky and K.D. Shuler

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown with polyethylene mulch at five locations during a total of nine seasons to evaluate the effects of K source and K rate on fruit yield and leaf K concentration with drip and subsurface irrigation. K sources evaluated were KCl, K2SO4, and KNO3, and K rates varied from 0 to 400 kg·ha-1. Preplant soil K concentrations by Mehlich-1 extraction on the sandy soils and loamy sands used in the study varied from 12 mg·kg-1 (very low) to 60 mg·kg-1 (medium). In seven of the eight studies, K source did not significantly influence fruit yield or leaf K concentration. In the other study with subsurface irrigation at Bradenton in Spring 1992, marketable yields were significantly higher with KNO3 than with KCl as the K source. Tomato fruit yield responded to the application of K in all studies. At Gainesville, Quincy, and Live Oak, with drip irrigation on soils testing low to medium in K, maximum yields were produced with 75 to 150 kg·ha-1 K where the K was broadcast preplant. These rates were 25% to 30% higher than those predicted by soil test. At Bradenton and West Palm Beach on soils testing low to very low in K, where all or part of the K was applied in double bands on the bed shoulder with subsurface irrigation, yield responses were obtained to 225 to 300 kg·ha-1 K. These rates exceeded the maximum recommended K rate of 150 kg·ha-1. Tomato leaf tissue K concentrations increased linearly with increased rates of K application, but were not influenced by K source. These data suggest that the recommendation for K on soils testing low in K be increased from 150 to 210 kg·ha-1 and that this increase should suffice for tomatoes grown with either drip or subsurface irrigation.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-chinensis), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), and `Jetty' spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum) were grown in containers using Osmocote Plus 15-9-12 (15N-3.9P-10K), which provided phosphorus (two experiments), or resin-coated urea plus sulfur-coated potassium sulfate, which provided no phosphorus (one experiment). Plants were treated with water drenches (controls), drenches with metalaxyl fungicide only, drenches with phosphoric acid (PO4-P), drenches with metalaxyl plus phosphorus from phosphoric acid, drenches with PhytoFos 4-28-10 [4N-12.2P-8.3K, a fertilizer containing phosphorous acid (PO3-P), a known fungicidal compound], or a foliar spray with PhytoFos 4-28-10. Plants receiving soil drenches with equivalent amounts of P from PhytoFos 4-28-10, PO4-P, or PO4-P+metalaxyl generally had the greatest shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations. There were no differences between the control and metalaxyl-treated plants, indicating that root rot diseases were not a factor. Therefore, responses from PhytoFos 4-28-10 were believed to be due to its nutrient content, rather than its fungicidal properties. Foliar-applied PhytoFos 4-29-10 produced plants that were generally similar in size to control plants or those receiving metalaxyl only drenches. Fertilizers containing PO3-P appear to be about as effective as PO4-P sources when applied to the soil, but are relatively ineffective as a P source when applied as a foliar spray. A distinct positive synergistic response for shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations was observed for the PO4-P+metalaxyl treatment when no P was applied except as a treatment.

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Kent Cushman, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Eric Simonne, Eugene McAvoy, Darrin Parmenter and Teresa Olczyk

Vegetable producers in south Florida suffered the effects of four major hurricanes during 2004 and two during 2005, causing damage to crops and farms estimated at well over 1 billion dollars each year. Producers were quick to respond by replanting or nursing damaged crops back to health. Green beans and leafy crops appeared least likely to recover or produce acceptable yields after exposure to high winds and driving rains. Young tomato plants up to the second or third string were at times completely stripped of leaf material, yet recovered surprisingly quickly. A replant study showed no benefit in replanting compared to keeping damaged plants in the field. Older tomato plants were marginal in their ability to recover with 10% to 60% reductions in yield for first and second harvests when compared to yields common in the region. As much as 100% of Palm Beach County's 2005 early fall bell pepper planting was destroyed by storms. Other peppers in the region were affected by flooding and subsequent development of root diseases such as phytophthora. Damaged eggplant recovered slowly. Research plantings located in commercial fields and at Research and Education Centers were devastated. In addition to loss of crops, costs to vegetable growers included labor to remove damaged plastic and reset stakes, installation of replacement plastic mulches, replanting, and structural damage to buildings and packing facilities. Some transplant houses and greenhouses for specialty peppers were completely destroyed. Removing plastic coverings before a storm's arrival saved structures and crops. Transplants of all crops were in short supply. Labor was lacking due to reconstruction efforts in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast. Successful and not-so-successful recovery efforts will be shown.

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Mary E. Carrington, Monica Ozores-Hampton and J. Jeffrey Mullahey

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), a palm species native to the Southeastern United States, is used in ornamental plantings and landscaping. From Mar. 1998 to Mar. 1999, we conducted an experiment to assess effects of different levels of nitrogen addition on three sizes of containerized saw palmettos in southwest Florida. Palmettos were in 26-L containers (plant height 30 to 50 cm, no above-ground rhizome), 38-L containers (plant height 50 to 80 cm, above-ground, prostrate rhizome), and 170-L containers (three erect above-ground rhizomes 1 to 2 m high). We applied granulated ammonium nitrate (34% N) to the soil surface four times during the year, at 6 yearly rates of N addition for each size category of palmettos (24 palmettos in each size category). We also applied granulated concentrated triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and potassium chloride (60% K2O) at constant yearly rates for each size category. We measured height and width of plants and length and width of leaves at the beginning and end of the experiment. We quantified leaf N, P and K concentration two days after first fertilizer application, and at the end of the experiment. For 26-L plants, increasing rates of N addition were reflected in higher levels of leaf N concentration two days after the first application. Leaf growth was less, and leaf K concentration at the end of the experiment was lower with increasing rates of N addition. Leaf P concentration at the end of the experiment decreased, and then increased with increasing rates of N addition. Plant growth for 170-L plants decreased and then increased, and leaf P concentration at the end of the experiment decreased with increasing rates of N addition.