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Irrigation is typically required for ornamental production operations, especially if operations are growing containerized stock ( Warsaw et al., 2009 ). Effective water management is the key to reducing nutrient leaching and runoff from these

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plant species and cultivars that have not been investigated for salt tolerance. The objectives of this study were to compare the relative salt tolerance of nine ornamental species, which are widely used in landscapes, based on their visual quality

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61 WORKSHOP 1 (Abstr. 1020-1035) Efficient Use of Minerals to Produce High Yield and Optimum Quality Fruit, Vegetables, and Ornamentals

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). However, home gardeners may have negative perceptions of native plants because they have a reputation for being less attractive and messy (Beck et al. 2002; Nassauer 1995 ). Homeowners may be more willing to plant a mix of native species and ornamental

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appear day-neutral. Perhaps, more common was the response of 24 ornamental sunflower cultivars studied by Yanez et al. (2005) , for which a SD response in time to visible flower buds was followed by additional SD reaction in the preanthesis period. From

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Plant quality is subjective and situational with desired attributes largely depending on the customer, plant, and season. For flowering ornamental crops, attributes of plant quality can include absence of insect and disease pests, presence of

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In many sectors of agriculture, precision irrigation, applying only what water is needed for a given small area, has become a familiar term. Irrigation in most woody ornamental nurseries, though, has changed little since the 1960s. In many areas of the U.S., irrigation volumes required for nursery production have come under scrutiny due to projected, or real, competition for water with urban populations, or concerns over nursery runoff. Modeling of woody ornamental water use, and subsequent irrigation requirements, has been limited and focused mostly on trees. Previous research for modeling of non-tree water use is reviewed as an introduction to current efforts to develop models for precision irrigation of woody ornamentals. Pitfalls and limitations in current modeling efforts, along with suggestions for standardizing future research is emphasized. The latest model derived from recent research is presented.

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Woody ornamental plants provide the framework and the major elements for effective landscapes by shading, screening, or delineating space. Deciduous trees and shrubs provide shade and background mass while in leaf yet permit solar access when defoliated. The fall foliage, unique bark, flowers and/or fruiting characteristics of many deciduous plants provide seasonal accents for our landscapes. Essentially all small fruit, tree fruit, and nut tree species can and should be considered as woody ornamentals that will provide these seasonal accents. Conifers and broadleaf evergreens contribute a stabilizing effect throughout the year and can serve as external insulation against noise, heat, and cold when properly placed in the landscape. Woody ornamentals thus provide multiple benefits by enhancing esthetic and economic values of property and by reducing energy requirements for heating and cooling (35, 39, 42, 51).

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Man's breeding and selection of woody ornamentals is, by no stretch of the imagination, a novel pursuit, but has employed succeeding generations of plantsmen for many centuries. Currently, selection of woody ornamentals that depends on government or industry funding is inevitably stimulated by cultural or disease problems with existing species or cultivars, by changing consumer needs, or by recognition of a market demand for superior or novel plants. The worth of this work frequently is judged in terms of its potential economic benefit. Speculative breeding and/or selection of esoteric plants, a traditional pursuit of the enthusiastic horticulturist, is now difficult for anyone other than the keen amateur to sustain.

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greening performance differ with the choice of plant species and vary seasonally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performances of EGRs planted with different ornamental species overall four seasons. Since previous

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