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Marc W. van Iersel, Matthew Chappell and John D. Lea-Cox

difficult to apply in greenhouses, nurseries, or both with a large variety of species and cultivars or in situations where accurate K c values may not be available. Another option is the combined use of sensors and models, where irrigation could be

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Mary Jane Clark and Youbin Zheng

To meet growing consumer demand for nursery crops in North America, container nursery crop production has intensified over the last 30 years ( Davidson et al., 1988 ; Statistics Canada, 2013 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2006 ). Container

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Lea Corkidi, Donald J. Merhaut, Edith B. Allen, James Downer, Jeff Bohn and Mike Evans

Mitigation of N and P runoff is a major goal of the nursery industry. Woody and herbaceous ornamental plant production may be a significant source of surface water and groundwater contamination ( Mangiafico et al., 2009 ; Thompson et al., 2002

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Houchang Khatamian and Alan Stevens

The main purpose of this study was to determine consumer preferences as influenced by type of packaging, size of container, and price when purchasing ornamental plants. From February to May 1991 over 1000 questionnaires were completed through personal on site interviews conducted at Flower/Garden shows and Garden Centers.

Forty one percent of participants preferred to purchase their trees as balled in burlap form and 47% chose to buy their shrubs in containers. Shoppers purchased 60% of their nursery plants from Garden Centers followed by 22% at discount outlets such as K-mart.

The most important factors in purchasing nursery stock were the price and quality of the plants followed by its size. Packing was an important factor but ranked much lower than price and quality.

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Charles H. Gilliam, Donna C. Fare and Gary J. Keever

Little information is available on herbicide movement in soilless container media and subsequent movement in container leachate and container bed runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxyfluorfen movement in irrigation water following application to container grown nursery crops in a commercial nursery. Oxyfluorfen levels in the container bed runoff were 9 to 27 times higher than those in container leachate during the 3 irrigations following herbicide application. Maximum oxyfluorfen level in the container leachate was 8.3 ppb following the first irrigation but declined to 2.0 ppb by the 12th irrigation. The oxyfluorfen level was still about 2.0 ppb following the 75th irrigation. Oxyfluorfen in the container bed runoff peaked at 99 ppb following the 3rd irrigation before declining to 67 ppb following the 6th irrigation.

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David W. Burger, Richard W. Harris and Pavel Svihra

Treeshelters are translucent, polypropylene tubes that have been used in England for 10 years to improve the transplantation success and early growth of trees in the landscape. The focus of the presented research will be on the use of treeshelters in producing plants in the container nursery. The results from outdoor nursery and greenhouse, solution culture experiments will be presented. Treeshelters increase the temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration around those plants growing in them. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) inside shelters is reduced 40-60% depending on treeshelter color. Plants growing in treeshelters show increases in height and in the ratio between total fresh weight and total dry weight. However, plants growing in treeshelters also show decreases in leaf, stem, and root fresh and dry weights and leaf area. The potential benefits and current challenges surrounding the use of treeshelters will be discussed.

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Karen A. Delahaut and Charles F. Koval

A Nursery Integrated Pest Management program was initiated in Wisconsin in 1991. From 1991 to 1993, the educational and monitoring program enhanced grower familiarity with the IPM concept, as well as provided detailed information on the pest problems common to woody landscape plants in Wisconsin. Educational features of the program include twilight seminars and winter workshops, a pest control guide that described the management strategies available for pests of woody landscape plants, and also statewide pest reporting and pest predictions.

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Warren E. Copes, Andrew Ristvey, Patricia A. Richardson, Bruk E. Belayneh, Haibo Zhang, John Lea-Cox and Chuanxue Hong

Water quality is an important factor when considering withdrawal of irrigation water from runoff containment basins (RCBs) in ornamental plant nurseries. A water quality standard defines the water quality goals needed to meet the designated use

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R. Kasten Dumroese, Douglass F. Jacobs and Anthony S. Davis

regeneration of koa forests ( Jeffrey and Horiuchi, 2003 ). In temperate forest regeneration, large nursery-grown seedlings are preferred for outplanting on sites where competition is severe because of improved performance compared with smaller cohorts

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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

gallons of water, 65% of which was applied as overhead sprinkler irrigation ( Vilsack and Reilly, 2013 ). Irrigation efficiency can be particularly low in container nursery production. In overhead irrigation systems, up to 80% of water applied may be lost