P.W. Simon, C.E. Peterson and W.H. Gabelman
Séverine Morel, Richard E. Harrison, Donald D. Muir and E. Anthony Hunter
Fruit from three red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars—`Glen Clova', `Glen Lyon', and `Glen Moy'—were harvested from four sites on two harvest dates and evaluated fresh or following storage at -20 °C to determine the relative importance of genotype, harvest date, location and freezing effects on 19 sensory attributes using a trained sensory panel. Freezing and cultivar × freezing interaction effects were relatively large while site, harvest date, and other interactions were of minor importance. The cultivar × freezing interaction was caused by differential responses among cultivars for the sensory attributes purple, juicy, sweet, and raspberry aroma with less discrimination among cultivars postfreezing. `Glen Clova' fresh fruit received the highest values for juicy, fruity, sweet, and raspberry aroma; `Glen Moy' fresh fruit received the highest values for purple; `Glen Lyon' fresh fruit received the lowest values for juicy, postfreezing, `Glen Lyon' received the highest values for purple and sweet and all three cultivars were similar for the other attributes. These data suggest that selection for improved postfreezing sensory characteristics should not rely solely on fresh fruit evaluations although further study of a more genetically diverse group of genotypes would be beneficial. The significant cultivar and minimal harvest date and location effects suggest that these fruit sensory analysis methods should be useful in selecting raspberry genotypes with superior fruit quality.
A.G. Reynolds, C.G. Edwards, D.A. Wardle, D.R. Webster and M. Dever
`Riesling' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected for 4 years (1987-90) to three shoot densities (16, 26, and 36 shoots/m of row) combined with three crop-thinning levels (1, 1.5, and 2 clusters/shoot) in a factorialized treatment arrangement. Weight of cane prunings per vine (vine size) decreased linearly with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot. Cane periderm formation (in terms of percent canes per vine with >10 ripened internodes) was inhibited by increased shoot density, while vine winter injury (primarily bud and cordon) increased slightly in a linear fashion with increasing clusters per shoot. Canopy density and leaf area data suggested that fruit clusters were most exposed to sunlight at a shoot density of 26 shoots/m of row due to reduced lateral shoot growth and a trend toward slightly smaller leaves. Yield, clusters per vine, and crop load (yield per kilogram of cane prunings) increased with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot, while other yield components (cluster weight, berries per cluster, and berry weight) decreased. Soluble solids and pH of berries and juices decreased with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot, but titratable acidity was not substantially affected. Free volatile terpenes increased in berries and juices in 1989 with increasing shoot density, as did potentially volatile terpenes in 1990. Shoot densities of 16 to 26 shoots/m of row are recommended for low to moderately vigorous `Riesling' vines to achieve economically acceptable yields and high winegrape quality simultaneously.
Dangyang Ke, Lili Zhou and Adel A. Kader
`Chandler' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duck.) were kept in air, 0.25% O2, 21% O2 + 50% CO2, or 0.25 O2 + 50% CO2 (balance N2) at 5C for 1 to 7 days to study the effects of controlled atmospheres (CAs) on volatiles and fermentation enzymes. Concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and ethyl butyrate were greatly increased, while concentrations of isopropyl acetate, propyl acetate, and butyl acetate were reduced by the three CA treatments compared to those of air-control fruit. The CA treatments enhanced activities of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) but slightly decreased activity of alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT). The results indicate that the enhanced PDC and ADH activities by CA treatments cause ethanol accumulation, which in turn drives the biosynthesis of ethyl esters. The increased ethanol concentration also competes with other alcohols for carboxyl groups for esterification reactions. The reduced AAT activity and limited availability of carboxyl groups due to ethanol competition decrease production of other acetate esters.
D. Pluda, H.D. Rabinowitch and U. Kafkafi
The effect of fertigation with N-NO3 at 3, 6, or 12 mmol·liter-1, and 0, 3, or 6 dS·m-1 chloride ions on fruit quality of three pepino dulce selections was studied. Genotypes varied considerably in their response to mineral treatments in most quality characteristics. Variation in fruit size was greatly reduced when clusters were thinned to three fruit. Increasing chloride concentration in the nutrient soltuion reduced fruit size significantly and ascorbic acid concentration relative to the control, but fruit shape was not affected. Increases in NaCl salt, but not N concentration, resulted in significantly higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) and firmness in all three genotypes. Electrical conductivity, acidity, and pH were significantly affected by the two mineral treatments in the first trial, but remained unchanged in the second season. Fruit firmness, SSC, and acidity declined by 12% to 30%, whereas ascorbic acid content increased during 14 days storage at room temperature. These changes depended on genotype and environment during fruit growth and development. Organoleptic ratings were highest in salt-treated plants. Fruit quality of pepino dulce may be manipulated by crop management, thus improving its acceptability in Western markets.
Marilyn H.Y. Hovius, Irwin L. Goldman and Kirk L. Parkin
Breeders have found field screening for white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) resistance in onion (Allium cepa L.) to be unreliable since consistently moderate to high disease levels that significantly differentiate cultivars do not occur over field sites and years. The objective was to determine if differences in onion white rot resistance levels were associated with differing S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) levels. A collection of onion breeding lines and hybrids were evaluated in field trials at six sites in 1999-2001. High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze ACSOs in onion plant organs. Four main cysteine-sulfoxides exist in Allium L. species: methyl (MCSO), 2-propenyl (2-PeCSO), 1-propenyl (1-PeCSO), and propyl (PCSO). 1-PeCSO was predominant in onion leaves, bulbs, and roots. 2-PeCSO was found in trace amounts in onion leaves and roots. There was significantly more 2-PeCSO and total ACSO (roots only) and 1-PeCSO (roots and bulbs) in accessions that were more susceptible to white rot in the field trials. This is the first report of significant differences in ACSO contents among white rot susceptible and resistant onions. A covariance analysis was used to determine if the ACSO levels that significantly distinguished among accessions could predict field onion white rot reaction. 1-PeCSO from both roots and bulbs was the best predictor of field disease incidence in field sites that had low, moderate, and high disease levels. Although the ACSO concentrations were not assessed on an individual plant basis, breeders may be able to screen onions for resistance to S. cepivorum by comparing onion root or bulb 1-PeCSO levels based on the results from this research. White rot incidence in the field should be higher in those plants whose roots and bulbs have the highest levels of 1-PeCSO.
James R. Gorny and Adel A. Kader
53 ORAL SESSION 7 (Abstr. 438-444) Cross-commodity: Postharvest Physiology/Food Science/Flavor/Nutrition/Quality
Theodore J.K. Radovich, Matthew D. Kleinhenz and John G. Streeter
To better understand the influence of environmental factors on components of crop productivity and nutritional and sensory quality parameters, the fresh-market cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group) `Bravo' was irrigated at different periods relative to head development in 2002 and 2003 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster. Irrigation was provided to plots either: 1) from planting to maturity, 2) during frame development only, or 3) during head development only. Control plants received no irrigation after plant establishment. Irrigation timing relative to crop stage significantly affected all head characteristics with the greatest differences between cabbage receiving irrigation during head development and cabbage not irrigated during head development. On average, heads from cabbage irrigated during head development were heavier, larger, less pointed, and had less volume occupied by the core than heads from cabbage not irrigated during head development. A positive, linear relationship (r 2 = 0.89) was found between head volume and head weight. Across years, combined head fructose and glucose concentrations were significantly greater and sucrose concentrations significantly lower in cabbage receiving irrigation during head development than in cabbage not irrigated during head development. Total and individual glucosinolate levels were greater in cabbage not irrigated during head development relative to cabbage receiving irrigation during head development. Head weight, fructose and glucose were positively related to the proportion of estimated crop evapotranspiration replaced by irrigation during head development, while the opposite response was observed in head sucrose and total and indole glucosinolate concentrations.