Land application and landfilling are the most common destination for biosolids in the United States. When properly treated and managed in accordance with the existing state and federal regulations and standards, biosolids are safe for the environment and human health. Application of biosolids in vegetable production as an organic amendment to soils can increase plant growth and produce comparable crop yields with less inorganic nutrients than a standard program of commercial synthetic fertilizers. No application rate of treated biosolids alone will produce crop yields equivalent to commercial fertilizers. Biosolids may be used in conjunction with fertilizer thus lessening the application rate required. The major obstacles to public acceptance are issues concerning water pollution, risk of human disease, and odors. Additionally, heavy metals are an issue of bias with public perception. To ensure safe use of biosolids to a vegetable production systems the agronomic rate (nutrient requirement of the vegetable crop grown) should be calculated before application for the specific crop.
Monica Ozores-Hampton and Deron R. A. Peach
G.D. Hoyt, D.W. Monks and T.J. Monaco
Conservation tillage is an effective sustainable production system for vegetables. No-till planters and transplanters and strip-till cultivation equipment are presently available for most vegetables. Lack of weed management tools (herbicides, cultivators, etc.) continues to be the cultural practice that limits adaptability of some vegetables to conservation tillage systems. Nitrogen management can be critical when grass winter cover crops are used as a surface residue. Advantages of using conservation tillage include soil and water conservation, improved soil chemical properties, reduction in irrigation requirements, reduced labor requirements, and greater nutrient recycling. However, disadvantages may include lower soil temperatures, which can affect maturity date; higher chemical input (desiccants and post-emergence herbicides); potential pest carryover in residues; and enhancement of some diseases.
61 WORKSHOP 1 (Abstr. 1020-1035) Efficient Use of Minerals to Produce High Yield and Optimum Quality Fruit, Vegetables, and Ornamentals
Mari Marutani, Joseph Tuquero, Robert Schlub and James McConnell
Poster Session 5—Vegetable Crops Management–Cropping Systems 1 18 July 2005, 12:00–12:45 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
Mark W. Farnham and Michael A. Grusak
Throughout the 20th century, there were concerted efforts in nearly all agronomic and vegetable crops to improve cultivated varieties for many different traits including crop yield, crop quality, disease resistance, adaptation to new climatic
Gene E. Lester
Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain compounds with important human health promoting effects. Whether fruits and vegetables grown via organic versus conventional production systems are superior in taste and nutrition, at present, is difficult to say with complete certainty. To ascertain possible quality differences and develop a definitive data base, direct comparative studies of organic vs. conventional produce requires following rigorous guidelines which includes 1) appropriate study approaches (retail market vs. farm vs. research center studies), and 2) standardized preharvest production site, harvest procedural, postharvest handling, and analytical methodology constraints.
Yoshio Makino, Masayuki Ichimura, Yoshinori Kawagoe and Seiichi Oshita
(including O 2 uptake) rate data for horticultural products has been published ( Fonseca et al., 2002 ). However, no report has been found concerning the effect of cytochrome c oxidase concentration on O 2 uptake rate in vegetables. In the current study
Michael D. Cahn and Husein A. Ajwa
Oral Sesssion 12—Vegetable Crops Culture & Management 1 Moderator: Albert Sutherland 19 July 2005, 10:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Room 106
Mathew Wilson and Jeffrey C. Wong
Poster Session 36—Vegetable Breeding 2 30 July 2006, 12:00–12:45 p.m.
Brent Loy and Otho Wells