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Tim R. Pannkuk, Richard H. White, Kurt Steinke, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, David R. Chalmers and James C. Thomas

diameter screen before placement in the lysimeter. Approximately 15 to 20 cm of loose soil was added and manually compacted with a hand tamper to a finished depth of 10 cm. The surface of each lift was lightly scarified with a garden rake before adding the

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Robyn L. Cave, Colin J. Birch, Graeme L. Hammer, John E. Erwin and Margaret E. Johnston

, unpublished data). Physiological dormancy, a condition mainly controlled by factors within the embryo, can be alleviated using pre-treatments such as cold stratification, mechanical and chemical scarification, and dry after-ripening ( Baskin and Baskin, 1998

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Genhua Niu, Denise Rodriguez and Mengmeng Gu

.). Ruter, J.M. Ingram, D.L. 1991 Germination and morphology of Sophora secundiflora seeds following scarification HortScience 26 256 257 Santamaria, P. Elia, A. 1997 Producing nitrate-free endive heads: Effect of nitrogen form on growth, yield, and ion

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Rebecca M. Tashiro, Joseph H. Bouton and Wayne A. Parrott

hand 3 to 4 weeks later and stored at –20 °C to help break dormancy until planted. In 2005, 950 seeds resulting from the crosses were planted in the greenhouse and evaluated for ornamental potential. The seed were germinated by first scarifying them

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Babita Thapa, Rajeev Arora, Allen D. Knapp and E. Charles Brummer

acclimation. In alfalfa, cultivars with short, prostrate growth in autumn tend to be winterhardy, while those with erect shoots and rapid growth are not ( Sheaffer et al., 1992 ). Growth conditions. Seeds were scarified using medium grain sandpaper 1 d

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Colleen Kennedy, Luis F. Osorio, Natalia A. Peres and Vance M. Whitaker

resistant (R) and susceptible (S) directions for foliar powdery mildew (PM) resistance (2011–12 and 2012–13). z Before sowing, the seeds were scarified in concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 min and rinsed three times in running water. The seeds were sown in

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout and S. Gao

due to seedcoat scarification in the treated plots ( Horowitz and Taylorson, 1985 ; Martin, 2003 ; Motis and Gilreath, 2002 ). There were no biologically significant differences among treatments in preharvest caliper measurements, likely due to the

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Mario Valenzuela-Vázquez, Geno A. Picchioni, Leigh W. Murray and Wayne A. Mackay

‘Texas Sapphire’ and ‘Texas Ice’ long-stem bluebonnets ( Lupinus havardii ) HortScience 33 348 349 Mackay, W.A. Davis, T.D. Sankhla, D. 1995 Influence of scarification and temperature treatments on seed

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Celeste Gilbert, J. Ben Weber, Krishna V. Subbarao, Rachael E. Goodhue and Steven A. Fennimore

Norberg, G. Jäderlund, A. Zackrisson, O. Nordfjell, T. Wardle, D.A. Nilsson, M.C. Dolling, A. 1997 Vegetation control by steam treatment in boreal forests: A comparison with burning and soil scarification Can. J. For. Res. 27 2026 2033 Peters, J. 2000

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Sandra B. Wilson, Gary W. Knox, Keona L. Muller, Rosanna Freyre and Zhanao Deng

seeds of these cultivars were germinated at a wide range of temperatures (20/10, 25/15, 30/20, and 35/25 °C) ( Table 4 ). It is likely that these cultivars require additional stratification or scarification treatments before germination. Table 4