CITPATH, a computerized diagnostic key and information system, was developed to identify the major fungal diseases of citrus foliage and fruit in Florida. This software provides hypertext-linked descriptions and graphic displays of symptoms, maps of geographic occurrence, diagrams of disease development, and management strategies, with reference to chemical control methods detailed in the current Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Reciprocal lists of citrus cultivars susceptible to specific diseases and diseases affecting specific cultivars are included. Developed for commercial growers, county extension programs, citrus horticulture classes, and master gardeners, this software is available for MS-DOS-based computers and on CD-ROM disks containing other citrus databases.
The Florida Cooperative Extension Service (FCES) teaches residents the importance of proper landscaping practices. FCES offers several educational programs that teach residents how to integrate energy and water conservation, pest management, and waste recycling practices into their home landscapes. In 1997, extension staff and volunteers planned and conducted environmental landscape management (ELM) programs resulting in >800,000 customer contacts. A survey was conducted to measure the adoption of recommended best management practices by program participants and nonparticipants. Results show that, of 39 practices examined, Master Gardener trainees increased the number of practices used by an average of 7.3, while educational seminar and publications-only participants increased by an average of 4.5 and 2.8 practices, respectively. Nonparticipants showed essentially no change. When practices are examined one at a time, the Master Gardeners made statistically significant increases in 28 of the 39 recommended practices. Educational seminar and publications-only participants made similar gains in 31 and 6 practices, respectively, and the nonparticipant comparison group made significant increases in 2 practices and decreases in 8. The results suggest that the publications-only strategy for delivering information to homeowners is less effective than strategies combining educational seminars or intensive training with relevant publications.
Commercial Horticulture Working Group, Extension Division, ASHS Compiled in 1985 by Dewayne L. Ingram Revised in 1991 by Robert G. Anderson
Agricultural technology development and dissemination methodologies through on-farm research have advanced to the point that they can be blended into a highly efficient process that serves most farming systems in a community simultaneously. These methodologies can improve the social distribution of the benefits from public investment in agricultural research and extension and, at the same time, improve the efficiency of these activities.
Access to weather information for planning and implementing horticultural practices is an important component of the production system for growers. Advances in meteorological instrumentation, data acquisition and storage, and communications technologies have improved greatly the potential for applying sophisticated weather information into daily on-farm decisionmaking. The North Carolina Agricultural Weather Program seeks to provide weather information to the horticultural interests of the state. It has developed over the past 13 years. Recently, budget reductions near 50% and the loss of two-thirds of the extension full-time equivalents have necessitated significant changes. Through regional cooperation and the use of electronic communications technology, the program has sustained these negative impacts and emerged as an improved program. This paper describes the evolution of a state agricultural weather program into what is now a regional cooperative project to provide the weather information horticultural producers require.
Under most circumstances, some type of storage, from ephemeral to long-term, is an asset in the marketing of horticultural products. However, attempts to transfer developed country (DC) storage technology to the less-developed countries (LDCs) can be futile unless two conditions are met: 1) There must be a prior extension program to introduce the concept of what produce storage involves and what benefits can be expected from its proper use; and 2) the storage techniques introduced must be appropriate for the area. In many circumstances it may be necessary to start with very simple “old-fashioned” methods. Stages of development in LDCs are described, together with suggestions as to appropriate storage methods for each stage and how to prepare for them.
updating horticulture curricula for undergraduate and graduate level education; 3) connecting university research and teaching to extension efforts in ways that improve horticultural production in the field; and 4) advocating for collaboration between
Video clips are a type of interactive multimedia that are often incorporated in Internet based training, and recent studies have reported examples of how cooperative extension is beginning to use Internet technology, including video clips, as part of delivering educational programs online. A survey was designed to determine if Oregon State University Extension Master Gardener volunteers trained in 2001 were able to access a video clip online. Eighty percent of the recent trainees had access to or owned a computer and 93% of this group had access to the Internet. Yet, when asked to access the video clip online only 37% of the respondents were successful. This disparity suggests the need for a seamless interface between the multimedia component and the software required to access it. If the end user is unable to access the multimedia component, it is difficult to justify the additional resources required to develop these teaching tools.
The experience and resources of extension specialists can be used in academic teaching programs within a horticultural managers' seminar for advanced undergraduate students, drawing on production, marketing, sales, and distribution managers to discuss application of horticultural principles in work situations and other complex issues facing agricultural managers. Guest speakers present an overview of their background, work responsibilities, management philosophy, and management practices. Students interact with speakers in this informal seminar and complete written evaluations of speakers and topics for discussion in later classes. This horticultural managers' seminar exposes students to the medley of problems and opportunities facing agricultural managers, uses the resources of extension faculty in academic teaching programs, and reinforces ties between commodity departments and their respective industries.
The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.