Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheritance was found at two loci. A first screening of a population in the invasive range showed high number of alleles per locus (ranging from 6 to 16) and high level of observed heterozygosity (0.75 to 1). Knowing that inheritance is disomic at six microsatellite loci and that at least two of them can be treated as codominant, diploid markers will be beneficial for future genetic studies.
In order to reduce the cost of fumigation and weed control in seedling nurseries of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.), a number of herbicides, used with and without Nemagon as a nematicide, were evaluated. While necessary for soil fumigation, the presence or absence of Nemagon did not effect weed control or seedling performance. The best and most economical herbicides were the spring application of simazine at 4.5 kg ai/ha or the fall application of diuron at 3.4 kg ai/ha.
The most commercially grown peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars do not require cross-pollination for reasonable fruit set; however, self-incompatibility is a well-known feature within the Prunoideae subfamily. Isoelectric focusing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-ribonucleases; PCR analyses of S-RNase and S-haplotype-specific F-box genes as well as DNA sequencing were carried out to survey the self-(in)compatibility allele pool and to uncover the nature of self-compatibility in peach. From 25 cultivars and hybrids with considerable diversity in phenotype and origin, only two S-haplotypes were detected. Allele identity could be checked by exact length determination of the PCR-amplified fragments and/or partial sequencing of the peach S 1-, S 2-, and Prunus davidiana (Carr.) Franch. S 1-RNases. S-RNases of peach were detected to possess ribonuclease activity, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the S 1-RNase was shown, which represents a synonymous substitution and does not change the amino acid present at the position in the protein. A 700-bp fragment of the peach SFB gene was PCR-amplified, which is similar to the fragment size of functional Prunus L. SFBs. All data obtained in this study may support the contribution of genes outside the S-locus to the self-compatible phenotype of peaches.
Performance of `Redhaven' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] propagated on nine experimental Prunus rootstock was evaluated over 8 years beginning in 1984, in a randomized complete-block experiment with 10 replications on a Brookston clay loam soil type near Harrow, Ont. This experiment was part of an interregional NC-140 peach rootstock experiment. Significant rootstock-induced effects were noted for increase in trunk cross-sectional area, cumulative tree height and spread, cumulative number of root suckers, yield, average fruit weight, yield efficiency, winter injury, cold hardiness, and tree survival. None of the clonally propagated rootstock gave satisfactory overall performance. All trees on GF655-2, 80% on GF677, 60% Self-rooted, and 50% on GF1869 were dead by the eighth year. In addition, suckering was a major problem on GF1869 and a moderate problem on GF655-2. `Citation' induced the most scion dwarfing but had the lowest yields and low yield efficiency. When yield, yield efficiency, fruit size, and tree mortality were considered together, the four peach seedling rootstock performed better than the other Prunus rootstocks and were ranked as follows: Siberian C, Halford, Bailey, and Lovell. Of these, the first three could be recommended with the most confidence to commercial growers who grow peaches on fine-textured soils in northern regions.
Tissue osmotic potential(Ψπ) and solute constituents were evaluated in leaves and roots of well-watered and water-stressed Prunus avium L. × pseudocerasus Lindl. `Colt' and Prunus cerasus L. `Meteor'. Osmotic potential at full turgorΨπ,sat decreased in response to water stress for leaves and roots of both cultivars. For `Colt', a cultivar with an indeterminate growth habit,Ψπ,sat decreased by 0.56 MPa and 0.38 MPa for terminal expanding leaves and older expanded leaves, respectively. For `Meteor', a cultivar with a determinate growth habit,Ψπ,sat decreased by ≈0.47 MPa in both terminal and older leaves. RootΨπ,sat was alike for both cultivars and showed a similar decrease of 0.20 MPa in response to water stress. Roots had considerably higherΨπ,sat than did leaves in both cultivars, irrespective of irrigation treatment. Soluble carbohydrates and potassium (K+) were the major solute constituents in both cultivars. Of the soluble carbohydrates, sorbitol was found in the greatest concentration and accounted for the bulk of water stress-induced solute accumulation in both cultivars. Regardless of the irrigation treatment, mature leaves of `Meteor' consistently had lowerΨπ,sat (typically 0.4 MPa) than `Colt'. This variation in Ψπ,sat between Prunus cultivars suggests the potential for selection of cultivars with low Ψπ,sat and possibly superior drought resistance.
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to evaluate sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars using quality DNA extracted from fruit flesh and leaves. SSR markers were developed from a phage library using genomic DNA of the sweet cherry cultivar Valerij Tschkalov. Microsatellite containing clones were sequenced and 15 specific PCR primers were selected for identification of cultivars in sweet cherry and for cross-species amplification in Prunus. In total, 48 alleles were detected by 15 SSR primer pairs, with an average of 3.2 putative alleles per primer combination. The number of putative alleles ranged from one to five in the tested cherry cultivars. Forty polymorphic fragments were scored in the tested cherry cultivars by 15 SSRs. All sweet cherry cultivars were identified by SSRs from their unique fingerprints. We also demonstrated that the technique of using DNA from fruit flesh for analysis can be used to maintain product purity in the market place by comparing DNA fingerprints from 12 samples of `Bing' fruit collected from different grocery stores in the United States to that of a standard `Bing' cultivar. Results indicated that, with one exception, all `Bing'samples were similar to the standard. Amplification of more than 80% of the sweet cherry primer pairs in plum (P. salicina), apricot (P. armeniaca) and peach (P. persica L.) showed a congeneric relationship within Prunus species. A total of 63 (21%) polymorphic fragments were recorded in 15 sweet cherry cultivars using four EcoRI-MseI AFLP primer combinations. AFLP markers generated unique fingerprints for all sweet cherry cultivars. SSRs and AFLP polymorphic fragments were used to calculate a similarity matrix and to perform UPGMA cluster analysis. Most of the cultivars were grouped according to their pedigree. The SSR and AFLP molecular markers can be used for the grouping and identification of sweet cherry cultivars as a complement to pomological studies. The new SSRs developed here could be used in cherry as well as in other Prunus species for linkage mapping, evolutionary and taxonomic study.
The ratio of stamen number/pistil length (SN/PL) correlated with self-fertility in stone fruits; SN/PL is lower in self-fertile than in self-sterile cultivars. The SN/PL ratio is most reliable as a measure for fertility in Prunus domestica L. (plum), P. persica L. Batsch. (peach), P. armeniaca L. (apricot), and least reliable in P. avium L. (sweet cherry) and P. cerasus L. (sour cherry). The SN/PL ratio was relatively constant from year to year, with the greatest variation in sweet and sour cherry cultivars.
Development of ‘Stanley’ plum flowers and young fruits was characterized as having 6 different stages that extended from anthesis through style abscission. These stages were similar to those of peach and cherry, but growth and rapidity of development of the abscission zone differed between the 3 Prunus species. Previous research established 8 stages for cherries and 10 for peaches and apricots. The floral-cup base was enlarged adjacent to the ovary; in early, abortive fruit, remaining portions of the floral tube shrivelled, with no evidence of abscission zone formation.
Prunus persica (GF305 peach seedlings), Prunus domestica (European plum seedlings), Prunus myrobalan , and GF 8-1 ( Prunus cerasifera × P. munsoniana ). An overview of the development of ‘HoneySweet’ plum and molecular characterization can be found
Ornamental flowering cherry trees ( Prunus L. species) are popular plants for street, commercial, and residential landscapes. Grown primarily for their spring bloom, flowering cherries have been in the United States since the mid-1850s ( Faust and