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Effects of several stale seedbed procedures on weed density and biomass were evaluated on a silt loam soil in central New York. After an initial rotary tillage, weeds were allowed to emerge and either single or multiple applications of glyphosate, propane flame, spring tine weeder, springtooth harrow, or rotary tiller were used to kill the weeds over a 4-week period. The last (or only) application occurred immediately prior to simulated seeding of a crop performed by passing an empty seeder through the plots. These stale seedbed treatments were compared with a control consisting of a single rotary tillage just before simulated planting. Flaming or glyphosate stale seedbed techniques significantly reduced density and biomass of the principal broadleaf species, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and common chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo], in most cases. A single delayed flame or glyphosate stale seedbed treatment was usually as effective as multiple treatments. None of the stale seedbed techniques was effective against yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.). A flexible tine weeder was not effective as a stale seedbed weed-killing treatment in this study because of poor penetration of crusted soil. Penetration was better with a springtooth harrow, but this failed to reduce weed density. None of the stale seedbed treatments fully controlled weeds. However, glyphosate or flaming a stale seedbed could be incorporated into integrated weed management programs to improve control and reduce the need for herbicides. Broadleaf weed density within 3.8 cm of the center of the seeder wheel track was greater than elsewhere in the plot. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).

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Polyculture mixtures of several species of cover crops may be the best way to optimize some of the benefits associated with cover crop use. In the first year of a three year study, 16 polyculture mixtures of cover crops (4 species/mixture) were screened at seven sites throughout the state. Five of the mixtures were seeded at two planting dates. Fall evaluation of the cover crop mixtures included ease of establishment, vigor, percent groundcover, plant height, and relative biomass. The two mixtures with the highest percent groundcover were (1): sudex, rye, mammoth red clover, and subterranean clover (62% and 80% groundcover, one and two months after planting respectively), and, (2), annual alfalfa, hairy vetch, ryegrass, and rye (56% and 84% groundcover one and two months after planting respectively). The six mixtures with the highest percent groundcover did consistently well, relative to other mixtures, at all locations. Mixture (1) above also had the highest relative biomass throughout the state. Yellow and white sweet clovers, hairy vetch, winter oats, subterranean clover, red clover, rye and barley established well and maintained high vigor ratings throughout the fall. Ladino clover, timothy, and big flower vetch consistently had poor vigor ratings.

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Production of ascorbic acid enriched vegetables: Absorption of an l -ascorbic acid solution and the effect of storage temperature on the foliar exogenous ascorbic acid content J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73 681 686 10

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Nutrient loss from commercial vegetable fields has become a significant environmental issue in all the major vegetable-producing regions of the United States. Growers are facing potentially disruptive regulations aimed at improving the quality of both surface and ground water. Significant improvement in nutrient management will be required to meet this regulatory challenge. This paper discusses five practical, low-cost nutrient best management practices (BMPs). These BMPs are widely applicable, relatively inexpensive to implement, and can dramatically reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loss from vegetable fields. However, even with careful application of these BMPs, runoff and leachate from vegetable fields may periodically exceed environmental water quality standards, which are very stringent.

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Proper management of vegetable drip-irrigation systems requires knowledge of soil hydraulic characteristics, plant-growth and water-use characteristics, and evaporative demand. The resultant schedule must integrate these properties and conform to existing irrigation system and cultural constraints. Irrigation management must be coupled with the fertilizer management program to avoid excessive water applications that leach plant nutrients. Because drip irrigation applies water to discrete locations along the plant row, limited irrigated areas can result, and this is an important consideration for irrigation system design, cultural practices and management, and irrigation system operation and management.

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The Paperpot system provides a relatively flexible approach to commercial transplanting of crops. Around the world, most of the research and application of this system has been on sugar beets. Compared to traditional hand-transplanted, field-grown, bare-root onions, there are several potential advantages of the Paperpot system, including reduced labor requirements, accuracy of placement, and fewer imported insect and disease problems. Comparison of three transplanters—carousel, BST, and chain-type—indicated the chain-type transplanter had lower labor inputs and a higher transplanting capacity than the other models. The BST transplanter was capable of placing 65% of the plants within a 3- to 5-inch plant spacing. The chain-type and carousel deposited 36% and 14%, respectively, within this same spacing. Yield was higher when onions were transplanted with the BST machine. This was attributed to the more-accurate placement of the onion plants. A four-row BST transplanter was capable of transplanting 0.4 acres/h of onions in field-scale trials.

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Abstract

Upon visiting one of the many grocery stores in San Francisco's Chinatown, one is amazed by the vast array of strange-looking exotic fruits and vegetables on display, and wonders where they came from. By questioning the proprietor and examining the labels on the crates and cartons, the visitor soon realizes that most of the produce was grown in California, some less than 50 miles from San Francisco.

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