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Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas

added in three lifts to produce a total depth of 300 mm. To reduce layering effects, the top of the mixtures in the cells from the first and second lifts were scarified before adding the next layer. The test cells were moved to a laboratory and placed on

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Fekadu Gurmu, Shimelis Hussein and Mark Laing

the crosses were scarified by soaking in concentrated sulfuric acid (98%) for 40 min. Then the seeds were rinsed with tap water for 5 min to remove the acid ( Lebot, 2010 ). A floating technique was used to separate viable and nonviable seeds by

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Omar A. Lopez, Danny L. Barney, Bahman Shafii and William J. Price

applied GA and dark germination was enhanced by GA treatments after seed scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid. In fact, treatment with 1000 ppm GA enhanced seed germination in the light and dark ( Devlin and Karczmarczyk, 1977 ). Smagula et al

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Yung-I. Lee, Chia-Fu Lu, Mei-Chu Chung, Edward C. Yeung and Nean Lee

seeds ( Arditti, 1982 ; Linden, 1980 ). As shown in this study, NaOCl may not only serve the role of scarifying the seedcoat, but also demolish the endogenous ABA. Because ABA is a weak acid, apoplastic ABA preferentially diffuses across the plasma

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Christopher C. Dickinson, Alexandra J. Weisberg and John G. Jelesko

). Drupes were mechanically and chemically scarified ( Benhase and Jelesko, 2013 ). Axenic seedlings were germinated on petri plates of 0.5X Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal salts media (Plant Natural, Bozeman, MT), in the dark for four nights. Germinating

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Gregg C. Munshaw, John M. Layton, Barry R. Stewart, H. Wayne Philley, Jeffrey S. Beasley and Rocky W. Lemus

). Bryan (1918) first described the difficulty of obtaining adequate germination of bermudagrass seed and demonstrated improved germination results through sulfuric acid treatments. Scarification of the seedcoat by chemical or physical processes can

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson and Gourav Sharma

screening experiment were lightly scarified and planted in 10-cm-diameter plastic pots containing a Marietta silt loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, active; Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts) with pH 6.2 (1:1 soil/H 2 O) amended with 10% sand and 10% Sunshine Mix #1 potting

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Ajay Nair and Donglin Zhang

propagation such as seed scarification, cutting type, rooting hormone, rooting medium, nutrition, cold acclimation, and micropropagation have been specifically targeted and show promising results. Stewartia has been a plant of interest not only to the

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Katherine Kreuser, William C. Kreuser, Gautam Sarath and Keenan L. Amundsen

buffalograss ( Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006 ), can be overcome by GA treatments, scarification, warm or cold stratification, postharvest ripening in cold storage, fire, heat, or smoke, in several species, although such treatments may not effectively

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Chiu-Yueh Hung and Jiahua Xie

of the Se-hyperaccumulator A. racemosus and the nonaccumulator A. canadensis were purchased from the Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN). They were scarified by silica sand and cold-pretreated at 4 °C for 2 months before germination. Approximately