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Judith A. Abbott

A rapid nondestructive method for measuring apple texture using sonic vibrational characteristics of intact apples was tested on freshly harvested `Delicious' apples from major U.S. production areas. Sonic transmission spectra and Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness were measured on whole apples and compression measurements were made on excised tissue. Two experienced Agricultural Marketing Service apple inspectors assessed each apple and assigned a ripeness score according to U.S. Dept. of Agriculture grades and standards inspection procedures (based primarily on texture). Sonic functions correlated significantly with ripeness scores, MT firmness, and forces to rupture or crush the tissue in compression. Ripeness scores were more closely correlated with the destructive firmness measurements than with sonic functions. However, sonic measurement has the advantage of being nondestructive, whereas MT and tissue compression are inherently destructive. Further research is needed to modify the Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory`s sonic technique to improve the prediction of apple firmness before it can be adapted for on-line sorting.

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Kaitlyn M. Orde and Rebecca Grube Sideman

et al., 2010 ). Furthermore, DN plants produce ripe fruit ≈10 weeks after planting, not the following year as with short-day plants ( Pritts and Handley, 1998 ), reducing the period of crop management before financial return ( Bornt et al., 1998 ). DN

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Ed Stover, Malli Aradhya, Carlos Crisosto and Louise Ferguson

Currently, 94% of California fig production is dried or otherwise processed, but there is interest in expanding fresh fig sales. Since cultivars dominating the industry were largely selected for dried fig use, the fig collection of the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Winters, Calif., was screened for traits of interest in fresh fruit production. For some traits, the bearing collection of 137 accessions was screened, while for most traits, data was collected on a core group of 30 accessions. While current commercial cultivars feature flavors of honey or caramel, some NCGR accessions have bright fruity flavors, reminiscent of berries or citrus, as well as noticeable acidity. Considerable variation was observed for time of maturity. Breba (figs on previous year's wood ripe in June/July) production was markedly greater in `King' than in any other core-group genotype, with ≈3× more fruit per branch than the next most breba-productive variety and 8× higher than the commercial standards. Earliness of ripening in the large collection was most pronounced in `Yellow Neches', `Orphan', and `Santa Cruz Dark', with 3× as many ripe fruit per tree in early August as the earliest commercial standard. Several commercial standards scored among the varieties with greatest late-season production (≈200 fruit per tree ripe after mid-September), comparing favorably with `Zidi', `Panachee', and `Ischia Black', among others. The SSC at commercial ripeness ranged from 13% to 19%, and SSC at tree-ripeness averaged 30% higher than in commercially ripe fruit. Several accessions were observed to have fruit traits that might also contribute to sustained quality through market channels.

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Min Wu and Chieri Kubota

Manipulation of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the hydroponic nutrient solution has been studied as an effective method to enhance flavor and nutritional value of tomato fruit. The objective of this research was to quantitatively understand the accumulation of lycopene, soluble sugars, and the degradation of chlorophyll in fruits as affected by EC and EC application timing relative to fruit ripeness stages. `Durinta' tomato was grown hydroponically inside the greenhouse under two EC (2.3 and 4.5 dS·m-1). The high EC treatment began immediately after anthesis (HEC treatment) or 4 weeks later (DHEC treatment), when fruits had reached maximum size, but still were green. Fruits were harvested weekly beginning 2 weeks after anthesis, until they reached red ripe stage. The chlorophyll concentration in tomato fruits showed no difference between treatments when compared at the same ripeness stages. The lycopene concentration of red ripe tomato fruits in HEC and DHEC treatments was 29% greater than that in low EC control (LEC treatment). However, there was no significant difference in lycopene concentration between HEC and DHEC. Both DHEC and HEC increased total soluble solid concentration (TSS) of red ripe tomato fruits compared with those grown in LEC; while the DHEC showed an increase of fruit TSS of 12%, the HEC had a greater enhancement of TSS of 19%. In addition, the fruit ripeness was accelerated under high EC, regardless of the timing of treatment. High EC treatment at early and mature green fruit developmental stages enhanced both fruit TSS and lycopene concentration; however, the nutrient solution EC effect on lycopene concentration was not dependent on the time of application during fruit development.

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones and Bernadine C. Strik

. Fruit harvest. In each experiment, fruit were harvested within 2 d of commercial harvest, which was determined by the grower collaborators (locations 1 and 2) and experience (location 3). Ripe fruit were harvested on one date from 4 d to ≈4 weeks after

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Gad G. Yousef, Mary A. Lila, Ivette Guzman, James R. Ballington and Allan F. Brown

nitrogen (N) in April and 7 kg N in June] and pest control were followed. When plants were 6 and 7 years of age, fully ripe fruit were harvested at a uniform stage of maturity (when 75% of berries on any plant were fully ripe) and from comparable locations

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Alison L. Reeve, Patricia A. Skinkis, Amanda J. Vance, Jungmin Lee and Julie M. Tarara

reduction on canopy light environment, vine water status, and fruit ripeness at harvest; 2) determine whether cluster thinning impacts vine vigor and/or fruit composition; and 3) determine if the interaction of vigor and crop level impact vine physiology or

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Zienab F.R. Ahmed and Jiwan P. Palta

dip treatment of LPE to improve shelf life of banana fruit. Materials and Methods Plant materials Dessert Bananas Cavendish cultivar (Chiquita ® no. 4011) at ripeness stage about 2.5 (peel about 75% green) were purchased from a local supermarket in

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J. Siller, M. Muy, E. Araiza, M. Báez, R. Garcia, R. Báez and J. Diaz

Carambola fruit collected at the dark-green, light-green, color-break, and ripe stages were evaluated during storage at 21C for up to 10 days. Fruit size, weight, postharvest changes in color, compositional characteristics, CO2 production, ethylene evolution, and weight loss were monitored daily. Fruit size ranged between 78 to 82 mm. Peel color luminosity and chroma values increased with maturity stage, while hue values decreased. However, hue and chroma values of the four ripening stages tended to decrease with storage time. Weight loss and fruit flesh firmness were both affected by storage time and ripening stage, and ranged among the maturity stages from 5.1% to 6.7% and from 2.11 to 0.94 kg-f, respectively. On dark-green fruit, total soluble solids and titratable acidity were 4.89° Brix and 0.808%, respectively. Fruit collected at the ripe stage presented values of 6.7° Brix and 0.412% titratable acidity. None of the fruit among maturity stages changed significantly during storage on these parameters. Carbon dioxide production increased from 6.06 to 21.83 ml CO2/kg-h during storage time among maturity stages and always was highest on ripe fruit. Fruit harvested at the color-break and ripe stages produced ethylene after 9 and 6 days, respectively, and ranged from 1.15 to 3.92 μl·kg–1·h–1.

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Harold A.A. Gibbs and Leonard W. O'Garro

Colorimetric and chromatographic methods were used to assess capsaicinoid levels in a pungent Caribbean-grown pepper collection comprising 28 accessions of Capsicum chinense and one each of C. annuum and C. frutescens. Two colorimetric methods, one commonly used and attributed to Bajaj (1980) and a modification of the Bajaj method were also compared for congruity and ease of use. Capsaicin content of the cultivars ranged from 37.6 to 497.0 mg/100 g in ripe fruits and 27.8 to 404.5 mg/100 g in green fruit, as determined by Bajaj's method. The corresponding Scoville units of pungency varied from 15,000 to 300,000 for ripe fruit and 7,500 to 270,000 for green fruit. Levels of capsaicin assessed by the modified Bajaj method varied from 15.0 to 402.4 mg/100 g and 13.7 to 356.4 mg/100 g in ripe and green fruit, respectively. On the basis of capsaicin levels assessed by each colorimetric method, the pepper cultivars were differentiated into seven distinct pungency groups. For each method, similar groupings of cultivars were observed for ripe and green fruit and groups of the same numerical designation were mainly comprised of common assessions. These results indicate that the two colorimetric methods generally agree. In contrast, the modified colorimetric method was more efficient than Bajaj's procedure, which required pretreatment of pepper extracts to remove the extracting solvent by evaporation and interfering chromogenic pigments by column chromatography. Phase separation of capsaicin and interfering pigments in pepper extracts by use of dilute acid was the only pretreatment required in the modified Bajaj method before colorimetry. High performance liquid chromatography performed on fruit extracts of the cultivars revealed the presence of the capsaicinoids capsaicin, homocapsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin. Capsaicin and homocapsaicin were detected in greater abundance than dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin in fruit of all cultivars. Homodihydrocapsaicin was the least abundant of the capsaicinoids and was generally absent in ripe fruit.