Field studies were conducted in Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma in 1996 to evaluate the influence of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) applied alone or in combination on the establishment rate of buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] from seed. `Cody' buffalograss burrs were planted at 98 kg·ha-1. Nitrogen was applied at 0 or 49 kg·ha-1 at planting and at 49 kg·ha-1 weekly or every other week for 5 weeks after seeding (WAS). The total N amounts applied were 0, 49, 147, or 294 kg·ha-1. Phosphorus and K were applied at rates of 0 or 49 kg·ha-1 at planting only. Percent buffalograss coverage ratings were taken weekly for up to 11 WAS. Buffalograss coverage was enhanced by N rates up to 147 kg·ha-1. Application of P improved buffalograss establishment at the Nebraska and Oklahoma sites but had no effect at the Kansas site. Potassium application had no influence on establishment at any site. Chemical names used: methyl 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-amino]carbonyl]amino] sulfonyl]benzoate (metsulfuron methyl); 6-chloro-N,Ń-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine)
Trials were conducted in nine commercial processing tomato fields in California from 1994 to 1995 to assess the effects of potassium fertilization on fruit yield and quality. Sites were selected to represent a range of ammonium acetate extractable soil K levels (91 to 284 mg·kg–1, top 30 cm) and K release rates (K at 1.8 to 8.5 mg·kg–1·d–1). Potassium was applied in furrow or drip irrigation during the fruit bulking stage at seasonal rates from 90 to 135 kg·ha–1. Significant yield increase (4% to 24%) was observed at three of the four sites with extractable soil K <125 mg·kg–1 (K released at <3.1 mg·kg–1·d–1); no yield response was observed at the five sites with greater soil K supply. Fruit color and soluble solids content was unaffected by K fertilization at any site. Additionally, red fruit of two cultivars (`Halley' and `Heinz 8892') were collected from 80 commercial fields in 1995 and evaluated for soluble solids content, color (of a comminuted sample as well as visual ranking of internal and external ripening disorders), and tissue K concentration. Fruit K concentration was poorly correlated with any quality characteristic. We conclude that yield response to K fertilization can be adequately predicted by either soil test method and that K supply plays a relatively minor role in tomato fruit quality under representative field conditions.
This article examines the nutritional quality and human health benefits of melons, specifically, muskmelon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) types. Melons are naturally low in fat and sodium, have no cholesterol, and provide many essential nutrients such as potassium, in addition to being a rich source of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Although melons are an excellent source of some nutrients, they are low in others, like vitamin E, folic acid, iron, and calcium. Since the U.S. diet is already high in fat and protein content, melons should be included in everyone's diet, along with five to eight servings per day of a variety of other fruit and vegetables, to ensure adequate nutrition, promote individual health, and reduce one's risk of cancer and certain other chronic diseases.
described in Regulation EEC/2568/91 ( European Union Commission, 1991 ). Free acidity, expressed as percentage of oleic acid, was determined with a potassium hydroxide titration. Peroxide value, expressed as meq O 2 kg −1 of oil, was analyzed by iodometry
Release characteristics of four types of controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, and Multicote) were studied during a 47-week simulated plant production cycle. The 2.4-L containers containing a low-fertility, acid-based substrate were placed in an unheated greenhouse and subjected to environmental conditions often used for production of azaleas and camellias. Leachate from containers was collected weekly and monitored for pH, electrical conductivity, and concentrations of NH4 + N, NO3 –N, total P and total K. Leachate concentrations of all nutrients were relatively high during the first 10 to 20 weeks of the study, and then gradually decreased during the remaining portion of the experiment. Differences were observed among fertilizer types, with Multicote often resulting in higher concentrations of N, P, and K in leachates compared to the leachates from the other fertilizer types during the first half of the study. Concentrations of NO3 – and P from all fertilizer types were often above permissible levels as cited in the federal Clean Water Act.
Optimum economic yield is produced when nutrients in the proper amounts are supplied to the crop. Crop nutrient requirements (CNR) of essential elements have been determined for the major vegetables produced in Florida. However, for minor crops, such as muskmelon, little research has been conducted to determine the CNR, especially potassium. In many vegetables, yield has responded to increasing K rates when other elements were not limiting. Our objective was to determine the K fertility requirement for optimum yield of muskmelon and to evaluate the Mehlich-1 soil test calibration for soil testing low in K (<20 mg·kg–1). Experiments were conducted in the spring and fall seasons of 1995. Potassium at five rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg·ha–1) was injected weekly, approximating the growth curve of `Galia' and `Mission'. There were significant yield responses to K fertilization for both cultivars during both seasons. During spring, average marketable yield was 14.5, 26.1, 31.9, 31.5, and 36.3 Mg·ha–1 and for fall, average marketable yield was 15.8, 32.9, 37.8, 37.2, and 36.4 Mg·ha–1 for the previously described K treatments, respectively. The cultivar response for both seasons was described by a linear-plateau model. In spring, yield was maximized with K at 116.8 and 76.3 kg·ha–1 for `Galia' and `Mission', respectively. In fall, K at 73.3 and 68.3 kg·ha–1 produced the peak response for the same cultivars. These results indicate that maximum yield of muskmelon in Florida can be obtained at considerably less K than the current recommendation of 140 kg·ha–1.
Cloyd, 2012 ). Potassium bicarbonate (MilStop ® ; BioWorks, Victor, NY) is a fungicide registered for use in agricultural and greenhouse cropping systems for the control of various foliar plant pathogens ( Abd-El-Kareem, 2007 ; Cushman et al., 2007
), and potassium (K) in the tissue z . Table 5. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium use efficiency for each location. Tissue uptake. Tissue uptake ranged from 0.9 to 4.5 g·m −2 N, 0.2 to 0.6 g·m −2 P, and 1.5 to 4.6 g·m −2 K ( Table 4 ), varying by a
and metabolism ( Wang et al., 2003 ). A solution of 0.2% potassium nitrate has been found to enhance germination of Phlox drummondii ( Heit, 1957 ); however, Springer and Tyrl (1989) observed no significant enhancement of germination in seeds of P
others ( Foy and Murray, 1978 ) demonstrated that grasses in acidic soils suffered from P, potassium (K), Ca, and Mg deficiencies; inhibition of growth; and poor environmental stress tolerance. The negative effects of Al on plant growth and nutrient