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Chemda Degani, Ruth El-Batsri and Shmuel Gazit

Forty-one (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars were characterized electrophoretically using the isozyme systems aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, leucine aminopeptidase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and triosephosphate isomerase. The outcross origin of some of the mango cultivars was supported by the isozymic banding patterns. Reported parentage of some other cultivars was not consistent with their isozymic banding patterns.

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Luís Goulão, Luisa Monte-Corvo and Cristina M. Oliveira

Variability of commercial plum (Prunus L. sp.) cultivars is unknown since breeding often involves intercrossing hybrids with several species but has been based on a low number of parents. Molecular markers like amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), which sample multiple loci simultaneously, have become increasingly popular, and were used to characterize 24 diploid and four hexaploid cultivars of plum. Seven AFLP and six ISSR primers were used, and resulted in amplification of 379 and 270 products, respectively. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrograms, based on similarity coefficients, reflected a clear separation between diploid and hexaploid plums. Among diploid plums, two pairs of cultivars were relatively distinct from the rest, namely `Golden Japan' and `Methley' and `Ozark Premier' and `Songold'. Furthermore, several cultivars were grouped together both with AFLP and ISSR analysis: 1) `Ambra', `Red Beaut', and `Black Beaut', 2) `Black Diamond' and `Royal Diamond', 3) `June Rose', `Santa Rosa', and `Royal Red', and iv) `Freedom', `Larry Ann', and `Queen Rosa'. Although the phenetic classification obtained by the two methods were similar (r = 0.73, for the diploid group), ISSR had a higher reproducibility and percentage of polymorphisms (87.4% vs. 62.8%) than AFLP. Methodological aspects of both markers systems are discussed. Results obtained suggest that the AFLP and ISSR approaches are valuable tools for identification of specific genotypes and analysis of phenetic relationships in plum.

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B.S. Vivek and Philipp W. Simon

Current classifications of the genus Daucus are based on morphological and anatomical characteristics. We have used single to low copy nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (nRFLPs) to describe the phylogeny and relationships of eight Daucus species including cultivated carrot (D. carota L.). Parsimony analysis of 247 characters (DNA fragments from 58 probe-enzyme combinations) yielded a tree in which accessions were grouped into three major clades and phenetic analysis using Jaccard's coefficient yielded two major clusters. The phylogenetic relationships from the nuclear RFLP data generally agreed with an earlier morphological classification. Resolution and placement of D. guttatus and D. muricatus were not consistent with the morphological classifications. Molecular variation among carrot inbreds was large.

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Nathan C. Phillips, Steve R. Larson and Daniel T. Drost

The genus Allium is distributed worldwide and includes about 80 North American species, with at least 13 occurring in Utah. Our study focuses on the population dynamics of three Allium species native to Utah; Allium acuminatum, A. brandegei, and A. passeyi. In conjunction with our studies of life history, growth characteristics, demographics, and habitat, we are interested in determining the levels of genetic variation in these species. This study examines amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) within and among five Allium acuminatum, four A. brandegei, and three A. passeyi populations native to Utah. These species have contrasting abundance and distribution. The study populations were selected along an elevation gradient to represent within-species habitat differences. About 10–20 plants from each of the 12 populations were genotyped using six AFLP primer combinations, which detect DNA variation within and among all three species. These data will be used to compare levels of genetic variation and isolation among populations and species.

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O. Gulsen, R.C. Shearman, K.P. Vogel, D.J. Lee, P.S. Baenziger, T.M. Heng-Moss and H. Budak

Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] has the potential for increased use as a turfgrass species due to its low maintenance and water conservation characteristics. This study was conducted to estimate diversity and relationships among naturally occurring buffalograss genotypes based on the nuclear genome, using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The 56 genotypes studied represented five ploidy levels collected from diverse geographic locations in the North American Great Plains. In addition, blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. Ex Steud.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were included as outgroups. Twenty-five combinations of forward and reverse primers were used. Ninety-five intensively amplified markers were scored and used to infer diversity and relationships among the genotypes. All buffalograss genotypes were discriminated from each other with similarity values ranging from 0.70 to 0.95. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the 56 genotypes could be reduced to 50 due to high similarity levels among some of the genotypes. The distance between buffalograsses, blue grama, and perennial ryegrass were consistent with current taxonomical distances. This research indicates that SRAP markers can be used to estimate genetic diversity and relationships among naturally occurring buffalograss genotypes.

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Peter Boches, Lisa J. Rowland, Kim Hummer and Nahla V. Bassil

Microsatellite markers for blueberry (Vaccinium L.) were created from a preexisting blueberry expressed sequence tag (EST) library of 1305 sequences and a microsatellite-enriched genomic library of 136 clones.

Microsatellite primers for 65 EST-containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 29 genomic SSR were initially tested for amplification and polymorphism on agarose gels. Potential usefulness of these SSRs for estimating species relationships in the genus was assessed through cross-species transference of 45 SSR loci and cluster analysis using genetic distance values from five highly polymorphic EST-SSR loci. Cross-species amplification for 45 SSR loci ranged from 17% to 100%, and was 83% on average in nine sections. Cluster analysis of 59 Vaccinium species based on genetic distance measures obtained from 5 EST-SSR loci supported the concept of V. elliotii Chapm. as a genetically distinct diploid highbush species and indicated that V. ashei Reade is of hybrid origin. Twenty EST-SSR and 10 genomic microsatellite loci were used to determine genetic diversity in 72 tetraploid V. corymbosum L. accessions consisting mostly of common cultivars. Unique fingerprints were obtained for all accessions analyzed. Genetic relationships, based on microsatellites, corresponded well with known pedigree information. Most modern cultivars clustered closely together, but southern highbush and northern highbush cultivars were sufficiently differentiated to form distinct clusters. Future use of microsatellites in Vaccinium will help resolve species relationships in the genus, estimate genetic diversity in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) collection, and confirm the identity of clonal germplasm accessions.

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Salih Kafkas, Hakan Ozkan, Bekir Erol Ak, Izzet Acar, Halit Seyfettin Atli and Sonay Koyuncu

There are limited numbers of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars in the world and their phenotypic appearance and productivity are variable. Understanding such variation would facilitate their use in cultivar breeding programs. Therefore, in this study, 69 pistachio cultivars and genotypes originating from seven countries were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The results showed that all three marker systems were able to reveal variability between pistachio cultivars and genotypes. The correlation coefficients for genetic distances were statistically significant among all three molecular marker types. The correlation between RAPD and AFLP data was the highest (r = 0.73) and the value between RAPD and ISSR data was the lowest (r = 0.58). AFLP proved to be the best technique among them. ISSR and AFLP assays were reliable and produced reproducible bands. ISSR was preferred over RAPD, especially when financial investment and technical knowledge are limited. The constructed unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram obtained from combined data separated the genotypes into two main clusters: one cluster (“Iranian”) included genotypes originating from Iran and the second cluster (“Mediterranean”) contained most other genotypes. The “Mediterranean” cluster further divided into three subclusters: one (“Siirt”) consisted of the cultivars Siirt and Hacireso with a few other selections; the second subcluster (“Turkish”) included Turkish cultivars; and the third subcluster contained Syrian, Italian, and the remaining cultivars. The closeness of the clusters was “Iranian” - “Siirt” - “Turkish”/“Syrian.” These findings reveal a new understanding in the diffusion of pistachio cultivation from its center of origin, the Iranian-Caspian region, via southeastern Turkey to Syria, the Mediterranean region of Europe, and northern Africa.

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Mozhgan Zangeneh and Hassan Salehi

. Nine main groups were identified. Using microsatellite and chloroplast DNA, Hodgins and Barrett (2007) studied the population structure and genetic diversity of Narcissus triandrus . Lu et al. (2007) applied amplified fragment length polymorphism

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J. Tous, C. Olarte, M.J. Truco and P. Arús

The variability of isozymes in nine enzyme systems was studied in 25 carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cultivars using starch gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts. Five enzymes (phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aspartate aminotransferase, shikimic dehydrogenase, and aconitase) were polymorphic, making it possible for the 25 cultivars to be classified into eight phenotype categories.

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Jessica D. Lubell, Mark H. Brand, Jonathan M. Lehrer and Kent E. Holsinger

sizes invading unmanaged land. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) parentage analysis, in combination with morphological and spatial information, was used to determine the extent to which the cultivated landscape plant had contributed to the