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Phytophthora is a severe root rot disease in most raspberry production regions throughout the world. Disease control options are limited to raised bed culture and fungicide applications. Few Phytophthora-resistant varieties are available that have commercial quality. Little is known about how soil amendments (i.e., composts, fertilizers, and limestones) influence Phytophthora control in raspberry. We evaluated the effects of preplant soil modification on the incidence of Phytophthora root rot in red raspberries. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at two sites to differentiate between the nutritional value of the amendments and the disease control value. One site has a known history of Phytophthora and a the second site is assumed to be free of the causal organism. Raspberry plant growth and fruit yield measurements were taken for all treatments. Preplant soil application of Gypsum (CaSo4) and post-plant applications of phosphorous acid sprays (H3PO3) had the greatest fruit yields compared to all other treatments in the Phytophthora-infested site. Gypsum-treated plots had greater cane diameter, cane height, and cane density compared to the control plots on the Phytophthorainfested site. A second experiment was conducted to further investigate the use of gypsum for control of Phytophthora in raspberries. Field soil was collected for use as potting medium from each of the aforementioned sites and pathogen free `Titan' plants were established in the greenhouse. After subsequent floodings, gypsum-treated soils delayed foliar disease symptoms compared to the control plots. At the end of the experiment, the control plants had 100% foliar disease symptoms and gypsum-treated pots had 33% disease symptoms. This study suggests that gypsum could be used in an integrated approach to Phytophthora management in raspberries. Future research should identify minimal effective rates of gypsum, examine other calcium sources, and determine effectiveness in other fruit crops.

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-yellow peel with a rosy red blush on the sunny side. The flavor is sweet with a strong aroma, and the soluble solid content is 15.0% to 16.8%. The average fruit weight of ‘Zhongyoupanweimei’ is 80 to 130 g and the maximum fruit weight is 160 g. Origin In

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Lipid composition and pigment content were determined in pericarp of `Pik Red' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) that were harvested when mature-green (MG) then ripened for 1 or 14 days at 20C, chilled for 11 or 21 days at 2C, or chilled for 21 days and transferred to 20C for 4 days (rewarmed). During ripening, chlorophyll fell below a detectable level, carotenes increased 100-fold, phospholipids (PLs) dropped ≈20%, and galactolipids (GLs) dropped ≈35%. Fatty-acid unsaturation decreased slightly. Steryl esters (SEs), more than free sterols (FSs) and steryl glycosides (SGs), increased at the expense of acylated steryl glycosides (ASGs), and in all four steryl lipids, the stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio rose dramatically, whereas the level of isofucosterol fell sharply. During chilling, chlorophyll declined ≈40% and carotenes ≈60%. PL content did not change, whereas GL fell ≈15%. Fatty-acid unsaturation increased slightly. FS, much more than SG and SE, increased at the expense of ASG. The stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio changed little in ASG, SG, and SE but declined in FS. Isofucosterol increased in FS and SE. Rewarming had little effect on the levels of chlorophyll, carotenes, or PL levels, but caused GL to fall another ≈15%. Fatty-acid unsaturation decreased slightly in GL and ASG. The distribution of total sterol in ASG, SG, FS, and SE changed dramatically, yielding proportions close to those in unchilled MG fruit. Also, 4 days after rewarming, the stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio had increased sharply, particularly in FS and SE, and there was a further rise in isofucosterol in all four steryl lipids. These results indicate that chloroplast damage occurs during chilling, but PL-rich cell membranes are not degraded, even upon rewarming. Changes in sterol composition and conjugation during chilling and after rewarming could result in membrane dysfunction.

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ground color and little pubescence. The flesh is yellow with some red in the flesh if allowed to mature on the tree. The freestone fruit is firm with excellent melting texture and very good flavor. ‘Julyprince’ ripens in early to mid-July at Byron, ≈3

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; Lockshin and Elfving, 1981 ). Effects of N fertilization rate on fruit quality of caneberry crops have varied with little effect in ‘Thornless Evergreen’ ( Nelson and Martin, 1986 ) and ‘Arapaho’ ( Alleyne and Clark, 1997 ) blackberry. In a 5-year study

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). According to the data of Xu et al. (2007) , fruit surface color was the reddest under red plastic film. Fruits grown under blue fluorescent and red plastic films were slightly and apparently brighter than fruits grown under white plastic film ( Hemming et

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. Parentage: hybrid. Characteristics: dull, glossy green leaves; 14 to 16 inches tall; very strong leaf attachment for easy pulling; nice blood red interior color; excellent round shape for small beet processors; early maturity. Similar: Little Ball, Red Ace

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, the blackberry industry continues to be plagued by fruit with short shelf life and loss of quality during shipping ( Felts et al., 2020 ; Joo et al., 2011 ; Segantini et al., 2017 ). However, red drupelet reversion, a postharvest disorder where black

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Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones of winegrapes (Vitis) from European breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993–95 in a randomized completeblock experiment. These included selections from Alzey, Freiburg, Geilweilerhof, Geisenheim, Weinsberg, and Würzburg (Germany); Hungary; and the former USSR. Vines were grown under an organic management regime that included sodium silicate sprays for powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) control and oil + detergent for insect control but with little to no nitrogen or other nutritional inputs. The Weinsberg cultivars Heroldrebe and Helfensteiner showed promise viticulturally and sensorially as alternatives to `Pinot noir'. Cultivars from Geisenheim (`Gm 7117-10' and `Gm 7117-26') and Würzburg (`Cantaro' and `Fontanara') appeared promising as `Riesling' alternatives; many displayed similar sensory characteristics to `Riesling', along with reasonable viticultural performance. Cultivars selected at Alzey (`Faberrebe'), Freiburg (`Nobling'), and Weinsberg (`Holder') displayed sensory characteristics superior to the standard cultivar Müller-Thurgau, with very intense muscat, pear, fig, and spicy aromas and flavors. Several muscat-flavored Hungarian white wine cultivars appeared to be superior viticulturally and sensorially to the standard `Csabagyongye'; these included `Kozma Palne Muscotaly', `Zefir', and `Zengo'. Miscellaneous red wine cultivars that showed promise included Geilweilerhof cultivar Regent, and Hungarian selections Kozma 55 and Kozma 525. Vine yields decreased substantially in the 3-year evaluation period, primarily due to lack of nitrogen. Many of these cultivars appeared to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where cold winters and low heat units during fruit maturation presently restrict cultivar choices.

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Ethylene is essential for the senescence process in many fruit and flowers. In the last two steps in the biosynthesis of ethylene in plants ACC synthase converts S-adenosyl methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid(ACC). ACC oxidase (ACO) then degrades ACC to ethylene. Inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, such as amino-oxyacetic acid, and of the response to ethylene, such as silver thiosulphate, delay or prevent senescence. By expression of an antisense version of ACO RNA, we have generated two varieties of transgenic carnation which produce flowers with an extended vase life. These were produced using the cultivars Red Sim and White Sim. Flowers from these plants produce very little ethylene and normally fail to display the inrolling phenotype typical of senescence in this species. At the time after harvest when inrolling would normally lake place (5 days), the antisense ACO flowers produce only barely detectable levels of endogenous ACO mRNA or ACS (ACC Synthase) mRNA. Exposure to exogenous ethylene(100ppm) induces inrolling and production of ACS and ACO mRNA species. Such carnations will be valuable both as a commercial product and as a tool for further exploring the role of ethylene in carnation flower senescence and leaf wound response.

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