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specific crop. Given that light quality can affect a wide range of plant traits, such as plant height, leaf size, and flowering time, and that these responses can vary across plant species and cultivars ( Rahman et al. 2021 ), determining the optimal light

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, 1992 ; Gutterman, 2000 ; Hilhorst and Toorop, 1997 ). Some of the frequently studied environmental factors are temperature, water availability, light (quality and photoperiod), altitude, and mineral nutrition. In most studies where photoperiod effects

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μmol·m −2 ·s −1 are optimal for yield and aesthetic quality ( Jones-Baumgardt et al., 2019 ). However, high blue:red light ratios are known to decrease the growth and yield of herbs ( Dou et al., 2017 ). A recent study found that LEDs supplying red

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light sources in terms of light quality ( Marcelis et al., 2006 ). A recent review by Nelson and Bugbee (2014) claims lack of economic benefits of LED units comparing mainly U.S. produced lamps, where all tested HPS and LED units had a photon

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photosynthetic processes. Plants also have specialized photoreceptor pigments to respond to light quality and quantity through changes in developmental and physiological processes, commonly referred to as photomorphogenesis. Photosynthetically active radiation

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of LED light quality on plant growth and development because of the ability to separate and mix various wavelengths of LEDs, their space efficiency, and long life and minimal heating ( Morrow, 2008 ; Samuolienė et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2011

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-world plant variations, leaf angles, mutual shading, or reflectance. Both light photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and spectral quality play important roles in plant activities such as photosynthesis, plant morphology, and overall yield ( Zheng and

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cellular processes ( Smith, 1982 ). Unique plant photoreceptors respond to changing light quality and quantity through developmental and physiological responses commonly referred to as photomorphogenesis ( Christie, 2007 ). Photosynthetically active

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sufficient blue-light activation of phototropins results in the aforementioned shade avoidance responses, which may, or may not be desirable in manipulating qualities of a given fruit or vegetable crop product. The main consideration for phots will be in the

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). Different qualities and quantities of light can influence not only growth and development but also secondary metabolic processes that determine nutritive value and flavor attributes. This research spans many high-value crops including arugula ( Eruca sativa

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