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Kalpana Sharma, Erica Goss and Ariena H.C. van Bruggen

design with four replications (five plants per replication) per treatment. The experiment was repeated. Plants were checked for symptom development on a daily basis. Disease severity was determined from the length and width of lesions with acervuli on

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Thomas W. Walters, Lisa W. DeVetter and Inga A. Zasada

, including posts and wire, is then put in place. One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers confront is soilborne diseases, which includes root lesion nematodes ( Zasada et al., 2015 ). This migratory endoparasite moves between soil and

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

but found no correlation in sunflower and varying results for soybean. In studies evaluating field and vegetable crops, genetic resistance is often attributed to varieties that have slower lesion length development ( Blanchette and Auld, 1978 ; Sedun

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Tom Forge, Gerry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Eugene Hogue and Dana Faubion

, it improved uptake of N, P, and K ( Neilsen et al., 2003a ), generally improving soil fertility ( Neilsen et al., 2003b ) and soil biology, including apparent suppression of root-lesion nematode ( Pratylenchus penetrans ) populations ( Forge et al

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Bernard H. Zandstra, Sylvia Morse, Rodney V. Tocco and Jarrod J. Morrice

Fusarium infection ( Morrison et al., 2011 ) potentially leading to decreased yields. In addition, growers in Michigan have reported the development of lesions on spears from fields treated with flumioxazin that may be related to yield decline (J. Bakker

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James A. LaMondia and Nina Shishkoff

lesions leading to defoliation and shoot death ( Douglas, 2012 ). The disease has resulted in serious losses of more than $5.5 million in dead or destroyed boxwood plants to date in Connecticut alone, $3 million in the first year after identification of

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Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, Joara Secchi Candian, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rego, Timothy Coolong and Bhabesh Dutta

on cabbage are characterized by V-shaped chlorotic lesions at the leaf margin, followed by necrosis and darkened veins that consequently reduce movement of water and nutrients through xylem tissues, reducing cabbage yield and head quality ( Vicente

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Yunwen Wang, Huangjun Lu, Richard N. Raid, Gregg S. Nuessly and Georgy Faroutine

leaves with small water-soaked angular leaf lesions, and later become brown to black necrotic and papery ( Koike and Gilbertson, 1997 ). The symptoms then spread to other parts of the lettuce plants, resulting in unmarketable heads or hearts. Epidemiology

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Patrick J. Conner

scored: 1 = no scab lesions, 2 = a few isolated lesions with restricted growth, 3 = multiple lesions with expanding growth, and 4 = stem scab lesions or defoliation. Nut scab was scored using a five-point scale with the maximum level of infection scored

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Joshua K. Craver, Chad T. Miller, Kimberly A. Williams and Nora M. Bello

to describe this disorder, other common and interchangeably used nomenclature in the published literature includes excrescences, neoplasms, galls, genetic tumors, leaf lesions, enations, and oedemata ( Pinkard et al., 2006 ). Intumescences can have a