foliage plant propagation. Materials and methods Formulation of substrates. Cowpeat is a composted dairy manure produced and named by Agrigy Co. (Clearwater, FL). Solids from dairy waste are screened and composted in a large, rotary horizontal drum
Qiansheng Li, Jianjun Chen, Russell D. Caldwell and Min Deng
James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe and William R. Graves
material formulation will help resolve issues of material availability. The amount of a specific biopolymer required for a bioplastic application can be reduced by blending two or more biopolymers or by developing composites that incorporate low
Martin J. Bukovac, Paolo Sabbatini, Philip G. Schwallier and Michael Schroeder
significant differences between the effects of the Maxcel and Accel formulations of BA in these studies and in a direct comparison on thinning (M.J. Bukovac, unpublished data). Therefore, we identify the formulations used for each experiment but refer to both
Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, Leslie H. Fuchigami and Richard P. Regan
information is needed to assess the physiological consequences of plant nutrient composition and to determine what extent nutrient management practices and fertilizer formulation can be altered to balance acquisition and allocation of nutrients ( Rytter et al
R. Potjewijd, M.O. Nisperos, J.K. Burns, M. Parish and E.A. Baldwin
Varying the cellulose component of coating formulations affected the survival of two yeast biocontrol agents, Candida guillermondii (Castelani) Langeron and Guerra strain US7 and Debaryomyces sp. strain 230, when these yeasts were incorporated into the coating. Using methylcellulose as the main film-former gave the most recovery of the yeasts after an incubation period for both strains. Significant control of decay on naturally infected `Pineapple' and `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] was demonstrated for US7 in a methylcellulose-based coating for the first 2 to 4 weeks of storage at 16C and 90% relative humidity. During this time, US7 in methylcellulose formulations was similar in decay control to a commercial shellac coating with imazalil at 2000 mg·liter–1. A US7 concentration of at least 105 colony-forming units/cm was maintained on the coated fruit surface of `Valencia' oranges for 3 weeks of storage. Suppression of decay by US7 was improved by the addition of glucose and calcium chloride to the coating formulation. Although nearly equal in concentration recovered, Debaryomyces strain 230 was not as effective as US7 in disease suppression of `Pineapple' oranges. The addition of US7 to Nature Seal, a coating material made with methylcellulose, had neither a quantitative nor a qualitative effect on the pathogen population compared to the same formulation without the antagonist. Chemical name used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (imazalil).
Qinglong Zhang and Patrick H. Brown
In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of several Zn formulations applied at various times of the year in increasing Zn status of pistachio and walnut leaves. Formulations included inorganic and organic forms of Zn. Fall sprays was ineffective at supplying Zn to developing leaves even when very high rates (5000 ppm) were used. Late dormant and budbreak sprays were effective at supplying Zn to developing leaves and nuts only when extremely high rates (5000 ppm) were applied. Spring flush sprays were the most effective, while late spring and summer sprays were ineffective. The majority of the Zn applied remained in the epidermis of the sprayed leaves, which resulted in high Zn content of leaves but poor correction of Zn deficiency and little or no translocation of Zn to other plant parts. Many of the Zn formulations sprayed at spring flush at a rate of 1000 ppm effectively increased leaf Zn values by at least 10 μg–g–1. Addition of an appropriate organic acid to the spray solution and adjustment of pH to ≈4.5 improves leaf uptake and translocation of Zn. Addition of specific surfactants into the spray solution is also recommended. Use of N- and P-containing Zn spray formulations is less effective than sulfur-based sprays (i.e., ZnSO4). Significantly, there is little residual effect of foliar sprays (even at spring flush), indicating that consecutive sprays for several years are needed to maintain productivity in Zn-deficient regions.
James W. Shrefler, Charles L. Webber III and Otis L. Faulkenberry III
Producers of organic vegetables often report that weeds are a troublesome production problem. It has been documented that corn gluten meal (CGM), a by-product of the wet-milling process of corn, is phytotoxic. As a preemergence or preplant-incorporated herbicide, CGM inhibits root development, decreases shoot length, and reduces plant survival of weed or crop seedlings. The development of a mechanized application method for CGM and the ability to apply the material in a banded pattern would increase its potential use in organic vegetable production, especially in direct-seeded vegetables. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a mechanized method to uniformly apply CGM to the soil surface in either a broadcast or banded pattern. An applicator was assembled using various machinery components (fertilizer box, rotating agitator blades, 12-volt motor, and fan shaped gravity-fed row banding applicators). The equipment was evaluated for the application of two CGM formulations (powdered and granulated), three application rates (250, 500, and 750 g·m–2), and two application configurations (solid and banded). Field evaluations were conducted during Summer 2004 on 81-cm-wide raised beds at Lane, Okla. Differences between CGM formulations affected the flow rate within and between application configurations. The granulated formulation flowed at a faster rate, without clumping, compared to the powdered formulation. While the CGM in the banded configuration flowed faster than the solid application. It was determined that the CGM powder used with the solid application configuration was inconsistent, unreliable, and thus not feasible for use with this equipment without further modifications. These evaluations demonstrated the feasibility of using equipment, rather than manual applications, to apply CGM to raised beds for organic weed control purposes. Several design alterations may increase the efficiency and potential usefulness of this equipment. If research determines equivalent weed control efficacy between the two CGM formulations, the granulated formulation would be the preferred formulation for use in this equipment. This equipment would be useful for evaluating the benefits of banded applications of CGM for weed control efficacy and crop safety for direct seeded vegetables.
Jayesh B. Samtani, J. Ben Weber and Steven A. Fennimore
then covered with a clear polyethylene film (Guardian 1.4 mL; Guardian AgroPlastics, Tampa, FL) and fumigated with emulsified formulation of 1,3-D + Pic (InLine™, 60% 1,3-D and 32% Pic; Indianapolis, IN) applied at 281 L·ha −1 by drip injection to all
Tyler J. Koschnick, William T. Haller and Alison M. Fox
Two formulations of the contact herbicide endothall are used to control submersed aquatic weeds. Waters treated with the amine or dipotassium salt formulations have irrigation restrictions varying from 7 to 25 days depending on the concentration of endothall applied. These water-use restrictions may be reduced for turfgrass if studies conclude there is no phytotoxicity to turf species irrigated with concentrations of endothall that may exist after an aquatic application. Two separate experiments were conducted to determine turfgrass tolerance to endothall in irrigation water on five species of grass: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), annual bluegrass (Poa annua), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), `Floratam' st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and `Tifton 419' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Expt. 1 used constant concentrations of endothall; Expt. 2 used decreasing concentrations of endothall over time. Annual turf species (bluegrass and ryegrass) were generally more susceptible than perennial turfgrasses. Concentrations resulting in a 10% reduction in total dry weight harvested compared to control plants [effective concentration (EC10)] for the amine and dipotassium salt formulations were 10 and 14 mg·L–1 (ppm) a.i. on annual ryegrass, 10 and 16 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual bluegrass, 50 and 54 mg·L–1 a.i. on centipedegrass, 47 and 72 mg·L–1 a.i. for st. augustinegrass, and for bermudagrass 1301 and 908 mg·L–1 a.i. in Expt. 1. Expt. 2 resulted in EC10 values of 31 and 35 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual ryegrass, 7 and 12 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual bluegrass, 32 and 99 mg·L–1 a.i. on centipedegrass, 27 and 20 mg·L–1 a.i. on st. augustinegrass for the amine and dipotassium formulations of endothall respectively, and 958 mg·L–1 a.i. for the dipotassium formulation on bermudagrass. There was no effect on bermudagrass dry weights when exposed to the amine formulation of endothall in Expt. 2 at concentrations up to 1600 mg·L–1 a.i. There is a low risk of inhibiting growth of turf species at endothall concentrations used for aquatic weed control considering the maximum use concentrations, typical uses of the products, and decomposition rates.
R.E. Byers, D.H. Carbaugh and L.D. Combs
Prohexadione calcium applied as a series of three applications starting soon after petal fall to `Fuji'/M.9 apple trees reduced the number of pruning cuts, pruning time, pruning weight per tree, current season's shoot length, individual shoot weights, and increased number of nodes on the lower 40 cm of shoots. Fruit diameter, soluble solids, starch, or individual fruit weights were not affected by Apogee sprays. Fruit color and firmness were slightly increased in only one experiment. Growth suppression appeared to be greater on trees cropping more heavily. When trees were more heavily thinned, less shoot growth control was achieved. Apogee applied at 250 mg/L in three applications caused a significant increase in fruit set when compared to the control. Alone Vydate, Carbaryl+Oil, or Carbary+Accel+Oil caused fruit thinning, but neither ethephon nor shading 3 days caused significant thinning. Apogee did not influence results of chemical thinners when applied between the first and second Apogee applications. The 10% and the 27.5% Apogee formulations gave similar shoot growth inhibition when applied with Regulaid or Oil+Silwet L-77. When using hard water (well water), the 27.5% Apogee formulation was not as effective as the 10% formulation. The 10% Apogee formulation has more NH4SO4 than the 27.5% formulation w/w; NH4SO4 is used to prevent inactivation of Apogee by calcium and other cations when hard water is used for spraying. The addition of CaCl (frequently used to reduce bitter pit and corkspot disorders) to the 27.5% Apogee formulation caused poorer growth control than with hard water alone. When Apogee was used at 125 mg/L, the addition of NH4SO4 restored the effectiveness of the hard water+CaCl mixture. Alone the additives NH4SO4, Ca Cl, Regulaid, and/or Oil plus L-77, had no effect on tree growth. Apogee plus L-77+Oil provided additional growth suppression when compared to Apogee+Regulaid. In 1998, three applications of Apogee (63 mg/L) or ethephon (135 mg/L) did not affected shoot growth of `Fuji'/M.9 trees at these low rates. Combinations of Apogee and ethephon gave good control of tree growth. Flowering and fruit set were not promoted by any of these applications.