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From colonial times to the present, America has prized education as the provider of individual opportunity, as well as our national progress. The value of practical education was delineated clearly with the passage of the Land-grant “Morrill Act” by the U.S. Congress, signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862. The Land-grant Act provided grants of federal land to every state that agreed to establish at least one college to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts along with other scientific and classical subjects. This and subsequent legislation to support research and extension developed the “trilogy of American ingenuity”—the blended roles of teaching, research, and public service that form both the mission and strength of America's land-grant universities.

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A list of the consumer horticulture publications available from the cooperative extension service of each state was compiled. This list was prepared under the auspices of the ASHS Extension Consumer Horticulture Working Group and will be available for distribution. This list includes extension publications, leaflets and other extension materials appropriate for continuing education programs in consumer horticulture.

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poinsettias can develop branches that are more susceptible to breakage and increase transportation costs ( Clifford et al., 2004 ). Therefore, plant growth retardants are commonly used to suppress stem extension to produce more compact plants. Chlormequat

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In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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37 ORAL SESSION 4 (Abstr. 419-426) Extension: Technology Transfer

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180 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 736-743) Education/Extension

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formed in 2009 ( Fulcher et al., 2011 ) to reduce these losses and coordinate the creation and production of extension resources. A primary goal of the group was to produce regional information to maximize impact, whereby extension specialists and

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The trend in extension education is toward greater specialization and increased responsibility among the field staff for the educational programs directed to specific audiences. This generally leads to a greater demand for in-service training of extension agents. It is often true that the specialized extension agent arrives on his job with more training in his speciality, but sadly lacking in much of the knowledge and many of the skills essential to conduct an effective extension program in his area of responsibility. Though most good extension workers gradually acquire essential knowledge and develop skills through their own efforts, they should reach a desirable level of competence in much less time if some formal in-service training is provided. For experienced personnel, programs to help keep them up-to-date are highly desirable, and in some cases, special training is needed to prepare them for new responsibilities.

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The EMG volunteer program is one of the most widely recognized programs of extension ( Meyer, 2007 ). It was designed specifically to address the demands of CH, defined as the cultivation, use, and enjoyment of plants, gardens, landscapes, and

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A microcomputer-based bulletin board using the FIDO software package was established at the Univ. of Massachusetts for the distribution of information in the cooperative extension programs of home horticulture, fruits, vegetables, cranberries, and integrated pest management. System establishment costs were under $3000, and costs for the first year were about $200 for the maintenance of a telephone line. The system logged 4595 calls from university personnel, county extension staff, state agencies, and farmers during the first year of operation (July 1986 to June 1987). A total of 307 individual information files were uploaded to the system by both university and county extension staff, while 387 downloads occurred from the system.

Open Access