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David G. Hall, Tim R. Gottwald, Ed Stover and G. Andrew C. Beattie

that there was no relationship between the number of insecticide sprays per year and numbers of trees developing HLB; removing infected trees was more important than applying insecticides for maintaining low incidence of the disease ( Berhamin-Filho et

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Robert M. Pyne, Adolfina R. Koroch, Christian A. Wyenandt and James E. Simon

or disease incidence (DI) for each treatment group ( Table 2 ). Table 2. Variation of response by basils to basil downy mildew at cotyledon stage, first, and second true leaf pair at 7 and 15 d post-inoculation (DPI), Expt. 2. Results and Discussion

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Edward J. Boza, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Freddy M. Amores, Sergio Cedeño-Amador, Cecile L. Tondo, Donald S. Livingstone III, Raymond J. Schnell and Osman A. Gutiérrez

. Comparison over a 5-year period between cacao cultivar CCN 51 and 12 Nacional cacao cultivars for agronomic characteristics and incidence of witches’ broom disease conducted at Estación Experimental Tropical (EET), Pichilingue in the Province of Quevedo

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Catherine J. Westbrook, David G. Hall, Ed Stover, Yong Ping Duan and Richard F. Lee

insect comes from its ability to vector the phloem-limited Gram-negative bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter spp., associated with citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB) ( Bové, 2006 ; Martinez and Wallace, 1967 ; Mead, 1977 ). Early in the

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Anna Marín, Anne Plotto, Lorena Atarés and Amparo Chiralt

conditions. The antifungal effectiveness of the CFDs containing L. plantarum was visually evaluated in terms of incidence (number of berries presenting visible growth of fungal mycelium) and severity (percentage of decayed berry surface in the affected

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Julie R. Kikkert, Stephen Reiners and Beth K. Gugino

field, the average number of seedlings/seedball remained constant for a given seed lot at 36 d. However, the incidence of wirestem disease significantly increased with higher planting densities ( Table 2 ). It is well documented that plants of several

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Ibrahim I. Tahir and Hilde Nybom

varies between 12 and 20 t·ha −1 ( Ascard et al., 2010 ; Jönsson, 2007 ). Because apple scab is the most detrimental disease in cool and moist production areas, cultivars with monogenic (vertical) or polygenic (horizontal) resistance to this disease

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Arthur Villordon, Julio Solis, Don LaBonte and Christopher Clark

Kristensen and Rasmussen (2002) . The current agroclimatic predictor variables can be grouped into a submodule. Subsequently, submodules representing soil moisture, fertility regimes, weed presence, disease incidence, etc., can be added as these become

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Kristine M. Lang and Ajay Nair

crops ( Jett, 2017 ). In some parts of the world, high tunnels shield crops from rainfall to reduce the incidence of foliar diseases ( Lamont, 2009 ). Research has also confirmed that high tunnels can accelerate crop production ( Lamont et al., 2003

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Andrew L. Thomas, Patrick L. Byers and Mark R. Ellersieck

hypothesis and to ascertain the characteristics and productivity of elderberry in response to four pruning methods in terms of fruit yield, phenology, plant growth, and arthropod pest and disease incidence. Materials and Methods This elderberry pruning