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Developmental, environmental, and genetic factors affecting seed color were studied in the progeny of a cross between two white-flowered (aa) green cotyledon (ii) field peas (Pisum sativum L.): the pale large-seeded Marrowfat cultivar Primo and the greener small-seeded Prussian Blue OSU442-15. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid content during seed development of the parental genotypes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Both cultivars accumulated similar pigment quantities per seed, but pigment loss was greater during maturation of `Primo'. Bleached and unbleached mature seed tissues also were compared for pigment composition. Lutein was the predominant pigment in bleached cotyledons of both cultivars. Only trace amounts of pheophytins were detected in unbleached seed. In both genotypes, chlorophyll A : B ratios were ≈1:1 in seed coats compared to 3:1 in cotyledons. Objective measurements of seed color in terms of luminance (lightness) and chrominance (hue and saturation) were made in YUV color space by video image analysis. Inheritance of seed color was studied in an F2 population derived from the `Primo' × `OSU442-15' cross and inbred descendants. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed color were localized by interval mapping using a linkage map of 199 molecular markers spanning most of the genome and by bulked segregant analysis and selective genotyping. Four genomic regions affecting seed color were detected. A major gene accounting for 61% of the phenotypic variance in seed lightness (Y luminance component) was identified on linkage group V linked to r locus. Another major gene, which accounted for 56% of the phenotypic variance in seed hue (U chrominance component), was mapped to a linkage group containing group III and IV markers. A QTL with smaller effect on seed hue (U and V chrominance components) was detected on linkage group VII. Support for overdominant allelic interaction for a QTL on linkage group I, adjacent to the legumin locus Lg-J, was obtained by selective genotyping of the seed lightness distributional extremes.

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Seed coats of developing fruit of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cvs. Redkist, Redskin, and Loring] were punctured at 31, 33, and 38 days after full bloom (DAFB), respectively. Injections of water, 390 mg GA3/liter, or 390 mg GA4+7/liter were made immediately following seed puncture. Seed puncture and water injection following puncture resulted in abscission of all fruit. Injection of GA3 and GA4+7 delayed abscission of `Redkist' and `Redskin' fruits of punctured seeds by 6 to 10 days. Both GA treatments resulted in normal growth into Stage II and increased fruit retention through Stage III in `Loring'. About 100 μl of 250, 500, or 1000 mg GA3/liter was injected into the locule of `Loring' fruits following seed puncture at 30, 40, or 50 DAFB. GA treatments at 30 DAFB resulted in≈ 75% fruit set in comparison to seeded control fruit, while fruit treated at 40 and 50 DAFB abscised by the end of Stage II. Increasing GA concentration from 250 to 1000 mg·liter-1 had no additional effect. Movement of the GA was examined by injecting 3H-GA1 into the locule following the puncture treatment. More than 97% remained in the fruit after 96 hours. The percentage of 3H recovered in the seed cavity decreased over time, whereas recovered label increased in both endocarp and mesocarp. The results suggest a potential regulatory role for seed-produced gibberellins during early Stage I of development. We have identified an apparent change in tissue sensitivity to gibberellin induction of seedless fruit development between 30 and 40 DAFB in `Loring' peach.

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Plant Introduction (PI) accession 507984 of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has partly colored seed coats and either pure white flowers or light laelia flowers. Crosses were made with white-flowered plants of PI 507984: white-flowered plant #1 × the genetic stock t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 and white-flowered plant #2 × recurrent parent dry bean breeding line 5-593. Inheritance was studied in the F1, F2, and F3 of the former cross and the F1 and F2 of the latter cross. PI 507984 (white flower, plant #1) × t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 gave F1 plants with colored flowers and partly colored seeds. The F2 gave a 9:7 segregation ratio (colored flowers to white flowers), and the genetic model proposed is that flower color is restored in the presence of t/t by two complementary genes, Fcr and Fcr-2. That model was confirmed by F3 progeny tests of 21 F2 parents with colored flowers. The cross PI 507984 (white flower, plant #2) × 5-593 gave an F2 segregation ratio of 9:3:4 (bishops-violet: light laelia: white flowers), indicating that the white-flowered PI 507984 has v lae masked by t. Analysis of all the data suggests that PI 507984 is heterogeneous at Fcr and Fcr-2, having all three possible homozygous genotypes, viz., either light laelia flowers from v lae t Fcr Fcr-2 or white flowers from v lae t Fcr fcr-2 or v lae t fcr Fcr-2. The flower color restoration gene in 5-593 is arbitrarily assigned the symbol Fcr. Great variability occurs in partly colored seeds of PI 507984 due to the environment in which the seed was produced.

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and suffers from lodging, thus making mechanized harvesting difficult when it is cultivated without support. ‘Tavella Brisa Croscat’ was developed through selection with the aim of preserving the sensory traits of the landrace (low seed-coat

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significant difference test at the 95% level. Results Seed structure and morphological characteristics. Sugar pine seeds are large, having a size of ≈1 cm in length and 5 mm in width. Seed coat color is brown to nearly black. Among the three genotypes examined

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besides t are required to express various types of partly colored patterns, viz., Cl , Z , Bip , J , and Fib ( Bassett, 2007 ). Seed coat colors are controlled by 10 genes: P , [ C R ], Gy , Z , J , G , B , V , and Rk ( Bassett, 2007

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Cited Calub, A.G. 1968 Inheritance of seed coat colour and colour pattern in Vigna sinensis MS thesis, University of the Philippines, college of agriculture. In: Cowpea: Abstract of world literature 14. UTA, Ibadan, Nigeria. Drabo, I. Ladeinde, T

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24 cm long with 14 seeds. Coats of dried seeds have a smooth to wrinkled texture and red color ( Fig. 4A ). Seed size is large with a weight of 22.1 g per 100 dry seeds, and dry seeds have an ovoid shape. US-1136 plants grown for 12 weeks without

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Cited Coumans, M. Come, D. Gaspars, T. 1976 Stabilized dormancy in sugarbeet fruits. I. Seed coats as a physicochemical barrier to oxygen Bot. Gaz. 137 274 278 Edelstein, M. Ben Tal, Y

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hypochlorite and 0.1% (v/v) Tween 20 for 1.5 h in a laminar flow hood. Carbon source treatments. After disinfection, seeds coats were removed in half of the seeds and were then distributed randomly in nine media (86 or 87 seeds each) composed of WPM

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